Religious freedom between Islam and fanatic Muslims :
Arabs and Muslim in a brief Historical account

آحمد صبحي منصور Ýí 2015-02-04

Section one: Muslim History in brief glance

Chapter one: Arabs and Muslim in a brief Historical account

Arabs in Middle aged history

   1. Extinct Arabs 

The Quran mentions the powerful Arab tribe “Aad” and their ancient civilization after the prophet “Noah.” Aad disbelieved their prophet “Hood,” so God destroyed them and their civilization and rivers, which were buried under the sand of what is known as Al Raba Al Khaly in the Arab peninsula between Hejaz and Yemen. After them, the Arab tribe of “Thamoud” appeared very rich and more powerful. They also disbelieved their prophet “Saleh” so God destroyed them and their civilization. Some centuries after “Thamound” appeared a new Arab tribe named “Madyan” in the north of the Arab peninsula, south of Syra. They disbelieved their prophet “Shoaib,” so God destroyed them. (7:65 to 93)(11:50 to 68) (11:84 to 95) (26:123 to 189)(27:45 to 53) (41:13 to 18) (46:21 to 26) (54:18 to 31) (69:4 to 8) (89:6 to 14) (91:11 to 15)

Those ancient Arab tribes are known in the Arabic history as “the extinct Arabs” or “Al Arab Al Ba’edah.” 

Two Lines of the Current Arab Tribes 

In the time of Islam the Arab tribes were two kinds. The northern Arabs belong to the prophet Abraham, through his son the prophet Ishmael, and the southern Arabs or the tribes of Yemen. 

2. South Arabs of Kahtan 

The Southern Arab tribes established a civilized kingdom in Yemen, among them were the kingdom of “Maeen” “Hemyar” and “Sheba” which was mentioned in the Quran (27:23 to 44) (34:15 to 21) They were famous for their water dam of “Maareb.” After the collapse of that dam, many of their tribes immigrated to another places. For example: To Yathrib [tribes of “Aws” and “Khazraj”] who became the partisans of the prophet Mohammed, after his immigration to “Yathrib,” which has become “Al Madina,”, another tribe immigrated to Mecca around the sacred Mosque; it was the tribe “Jorhom.”   To the south of Iraq, the tribe of “Al Manazerah” established the kingdom of “Al Hayrah” under the influence of the Persian Empire. To the south of Syria, the tribe of “Ghasasenah” established another kingdom under the influence of the Roman Empire. “Kalb” was the biggest southern tribe in southern Syria in Islam. They were allies of Quraysh, helped Quraysh in its northern trade to Syria before Islam, and helped the Omawy family in establishing their kingdom under the name of Islam.

3. The Northern Tribes 

All the northern tribes belong to Adnan, the grand son of the prophet Ishmael, son of the prophet Abraham. The Quran mentions how those two prophets rebuilt the sacred mosque in Mecca, prayed to God to create a nation from the children of Ishmael, and to send a messenger of God from among them (2:125 to 129) (22:26 to 27). This messenger was Mohammed, who belonged to Quraysh, the most famous Arabic tribe.

From the time of Ishmael, Mecca which surrounds the Holy sacred mosque has become the center of the religion of Abraham. The Yemen tribe “Jorham” governed Mecca until 440 A.D., when the leader of “Quraysh”, “Kossay” son of “Kelab”, defeated “Jorham” and occupied Mecca, giving the glory to the northern Arab tribes, sons of Abraham and Ishmael. “Kossay” was the fourth grandfather of the prophet Mohammed. Under his leadership, “Quraysh” has become the most powerful tribe since then, and the religious and commercial leader of all the Arab tribes.

In the time of Islam there were many famous northern Arab tribes in “Al Hejaz” and “Najd” and around the Gulf. There were tribes of “Asad”, “Jadilah”, “Bakr”, “Taghleb” and “Hanifa” from the line of “Rabe’ah, the grandson of “Adnan.” There were also tribes of “Hozail”, “Tameem”, “Mazina”, “Qurash” (from the line of “Ilias, son of “Modar”), “Bahela”, “Hawazen”, “Thakeef”, “Gatfan” and “Adwan” (from the line of “Quys Ailan”, son of “Modar”). “Modar” was the brother of “Rabeeah” and the grandson of “Adnan.”  

4. Strong Families inside the Tribe of Quraysh 

Under the leadership of Quraysh, northern and southern Arab tribes changed the history of the world after the death of the prophet Mohammed. Quraysh had many families like the sons of “Taym”, to whom “Abu-Bakr” belonged, the first righteous khalifa after the prophet Mohammed, and the sons of “Adey”, to whom Omar belonged, the second righteous kahlifa. But the most powerful families inside Qurash were the sons of Hashim (the family of the prophet Mohammed) and the family of “Omayya.” The two families were cousins and grandsons of the leader of “Mecca” and “Quraysh” (“Kossy” son of “Kelab”). “Abd Manaf” was the son of Kossy and he had two sons, “Abd Shams” and “Hashim.”. “Omayya” son of Abd Shams established a new powerful family, while his uncle “Hashim” established another powerful family through his son “Abdel Mottalib” and had ten sons including Abdullah, the father of the prophet Mohammed. So, Mohammed was the son of Abdullah, son of Abdel Mottalib, son of Hashem, son of Abd Manaf, and son of Kossy (the founder of the glory of Quraysh). 

5. The Two Powerful Families of Quraysh Ruled the Muslim Empire 

The cousin family (sons of Hashem and sons of Omayya) had reached an agreement after years of competition. The sons of Hashem were the religious leaders and the sponsors of the sacred mosque, while the sons of Omayya were the leaders of the commercial trade caravans that took two trips to Syria and Yemen each summer and winter. During the appearance of Islam the religious leader of Mecca was the prophet’s uncle Al Abbas (son of Abdel Mottalib) and the leader of Quraysh trade was Abu Sofiam (son of Harb and grandson of Omayya).  

Mo’aaweya, the son of Abu Sofian, was the first king of the Omawy dynasty. He ruled the Arabic Muslim Empire between 661 and 680 A.D. The Omawy dynasty ruled the Arabic Muslim Empire between 661 and 750 A.D. After the Omawy dynasty, the grandsons of Al Abbas ruled this Empire for five continuous centuries, between 750 and 1258 A.D.

The four righteous rulers or [Al Kholafa’a Al Rashedeen.],were chosen by the majority of the people to rule in the time between the death of the prophet Mohammed, and the establishment of the Omawy Empire,[632-661]. They were: Abou Bakr [632-634], then Omar, [634-644], then Othman, [644-656] the last of them was: Ali, [656-661]. No one of them appointed his son to be his successor, and there were some aspects of democracy, which were destroyed by the Omawy family when they established their dictator kingdom. [661-750] 

Because of the contradiction between Omawy dynasty and the four rulers before them, the four rulers were called the righteous successors, or [Al Kholafa’a Al Rashedeen]. But all of them [righteous or not] were from Quraysh.                  

It means that Quarysh ruled this empire for more than six centuries.  The Arabic Muslim Empire extended from the border of China to the border of France. This mighty empire was firstly established by using the name of Islam under the leadership of Quarysh and by the swords of the northern and southern Arab tribe’s fighters.  

6. The Prophet Mohammed 

The prophet Mohammed was born in Mecca in 571, after forty years was revealed by God to the people as the final prophet of all mankind to reform (Millat Ibraheem) or the religion of Abraham, and to confirm the truth in the previous holy divine messages. Because of the severe prosecution, the early Muslims had to immigrate twice to “Al Habasha” of Ethiopia. Then the prophet and most of his believers immigrated to Yathreb of Al Madina in 623. He became the leader of the new state until his death in 632. During those years (623-632 or 1-11) most of the Arab tribes became Muslims, including Quraysh. After many battles and differing political relations, all of the tribes centered on Quraysh and led Quraysh to be the leader of the Muslim Arab Empire.  

During his rule the prophet’s closest friends were his cousin Ali (son of Abu Taleb), his son-in-law, and his friends Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman; besides sa’ad son of Ibadah, the leader of the partisans (Al Ansar). In his first years in Al Madina, the prophet Mohammed united all the immigrants and partisans in one nation, inside a unique brotherhood, and by the democratic rule, he handled all the problems inside his new state and defended it against the continuous attack of Quraysh and its partisans from the other tribes. At last he defeated Quraysh itself.  

7. Why did Quarysh Accepted Islam? 

To Brave Quraysh in many battles was a miracle which made the desert tribes around Quraysh reconsider their situation. For them, the new Islamic state was peaceful, and the new religion was a movement to reform their old religion of Abraham. At the same time, Quraysh made use of them in its commercial trade caravans, and when they came to the sacred mosque in their pilgrimage. In all cases, the new state of Islam and the new religion are the direct weapon of the other tribes to eliminate the homage, the power, and the hegemony of the mighty tribe of Quraysh. That is why the desert Arab tribes converted to Islam.  

Those tribes controlled the commercial desert routes north to Syria and south to Yemen, where Quraysh used to bring Indian merchandise from Yemen to Syria and the Roman merchandise to Yemen, then from Yemen by sea to India.  

This worldly trade by Quraysh was endangered by the new Muslim desert tribes who used to be allied to Quraysh, but they became their enemies and followers of the religion of Mohammed. Quraysh also lost its religious trade inside their home, Mecca, which depended on the statues of the idols around the sacred mosque after the tribes became Muslims.  

Finally, Quraysh had to accept Islam to keep its political and commercial interest. It was the same interest that made Quraysh persecute Muslims and fight them before. In that time, Abu Sofian, the head of the Omawy family was the leader of Quraysh in the political and commercial field, and Al Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle, was the religious leader of Quryash. The two leaders together had to accept Islam when Mohammed invaded Mecca peacefully and forgave its people. Abu Sofian and Al Abbas were the grandfathers of the two dynasties (Al Omaweyyeen and Al Abbaseyeen) who ruled the Muslim Empire between [661- 1258]

8. The Omawy Family Used Islam to Restore its Power. 

However, the Omawy family was the ardent enemy of the prophet Mohammed, except Othman, son of Affan, one of the early Muslims and closest friend of the prophet. The rest of the Omawy family became Muslim and tried to restore their influence under Islam step by step after the Prophet’s death.  

Quraysh in Mecca and Al Madina were united together under the name of Islam. This made the desert tribes revolt against the Muslim state after the death of the prophet Mohammed in the war of apostasy. In this critical situation, Abu Bakr was chosen by Quraysh to be the successor of the prophet, or Khalifa, after him. The new leader sent many armies under commandants of the new Quraysh Muslims.

After defeating the apostasy movements, Quraysh wanted to get rid of their trouble, and to use their ardent strength in establishing a new empire under the name of Islam. The ex-apostates became the soldiers of the Muslim armies that invaded other countries, and established the new Arab empire under the commandants of Quraysh during the rule of the first righteous Khalifa, Abu Bakr (632-634), followed by Khalifa Omar (634-661), then Othman (644-656), and finally, Ali (656-661).

In the time of Othman, son of the Omawy family, the family controlled him and his empire. For this reason, some Arab tribes revolted against him, killed him and appointed Ali, son of Abu Taleb, the cousin of the prophet Mohammed, as Khalifa. This was the beginning of the civil wars between Muslims.  In these wars, most of the Arab desert tribes supported the fighting leaders of Quraysh against each other, but many clans of these tribes revolted against all the leaders of Quraysh, They were [AL Khawarej] who killed Ali, son of Abu Taleb, and tried to kill Mo’aweyah, the leader of the Omawy family. The civil wars between Quraysh ended with the victory of Mo’aweyah, who became founder of the Omawy Empire, which had much opposition.  

9. The Opposition inside the Omawy Empire 

Among them was “Al Khawarej” or the revolutionists that were the ardent enemies of Quraysh, believing that Al Khalifa should be any righteous Muslim, even if he was a slave. Al Khawarej were the active armed oppositions against the Omawy Empire from the first Khalifa, Mo’awyah, son of Abu Sofian, who ruled between 661 and 680, until that last Khalifa, Marawan, son of Mohamed, who was killed by the Abbasy army in Egypt in 750.  

 Al Khawarej was not the only opposition. There were also patriots of the occupied countries in Iran, Iraq, Egypt, and North Africa, who revolted against the severe rule of the Omaween. The Sheeah were the continuous opposition, believing in the right of Ali and his descendants, not only to rule but also to be the religious saints of Islam.  

Moawyah, the first Khalifa of Omawy family, appointed his son, Yazeed, to be his successor. It was the precedence in inheritance of the throne in Muslim history, and Yazeed, the first to inherit the throne. He was faced by continuous revolutions from inside Quraysh, Al Ansar (or the partisans), and the sheeah.   In his short rule (680-683), he defeated all the revolutions, killed Al Husain, son of Ali, the grandson of the prophet Mohammed, many people of the family of the prophet, thousands of people of Quarysh, the partisans in Al Madina, and violated the sacred mosque in Mecca. As a result of his policy, the civil wars broke out inside Quraysh itself and another Khalifa appeared from inside Quraysh (Abdullah, son of Alzobayr), but the Omaween reestablished their kingdom under the leadership of Marwan, son of Al Hakam (who ruled between 683-685) and his son, Abdel Malek (685-705). Their grandsons ruled the Arab empire until 750, when the family of Abbas destroyed the kingdom of Omaween.  

10. The Abbasy Dynasty 

The emperors of Omaween defeated all the revolutions in a cruel way that made Al Shee’ah chose the secret organization in resistance where the real leader from the prophet family was unknown, except for a few unknown people, under the title of “call for the chosen from the people of the prophet Mohammed.” In some development of that secret organization, the Omaween poisoned and killed the secret leader of that organization who belonged to the family of Ali, son of Abu Taleb. Before his death he revealed all his secrets to his cousin Mohammed, son of Ali, son of Abdullah, son of Al Abbas. Thus, the leadership of this secret sheeah movement transferred from the house of Ali, to the house of Al Abbas. The activists of Al sheeah did not know the new change until their army appeared suddenly and defeated the last Omawy Khalifa, Marwan, in the battle of Alzab in 749 and the release of the new Khalifa of the new dynasty, who was from the house of Al Abbas.  

In the new dynasty of the house of Al Abbas, the sheeah was divided into two branches; one with loyalty to the house of Ali, continuing his way of resistance against the new empire, the other shee’ah obeyed the new dynasty.  

The first khalifa of Abbaside dynasty was Abu Al Abbass, his surname was Al Saffah, or the shedder of blood, who ruled between 750 and 754. The second Khalifa, Abu Ja’afar Al Mansour (754-775) was the one who established and cemented the Abbaside Empire, which lasted until 1258, but the Abbasy Empire did not control all Muslim Arab’s world as the Omawy dynasty had.  

During the Abbaside Empire (750-1258), the shiites established their empire in Egypt and Syria between (909- 1171). Some members of the Omawy family escaped from the massacres held by the new Abbasy Empire, and reached the Muslim Spain where he established a new kingdom, which lasted from 756 to 1027. Other kingdoms in North Africa and Central Asia were established by sheeah, but all of them belonged to Quraysh. For this reason they believed in a saying attributed to the prophet which confirms that the ruler of any Muslim state should be from Quraysh. Under the rule of Quraysh, the real Islam of the prophet Mohammed and his state became absent.

11 -Quraysh; the most famous tribe in the world:

This tribe used the religion of Abraham and the other Arab tribes for its benefits, and for its interests it persecuted The final prophet Mohammed and his followers, then it accepted Islam to keep its power and leadership, then used the name of Islam to establish its mighty Empire during the omawy dynasty [661-750], the Abbasy dynasty[750-1258], the Fatimy dynasty between north Africa and Syria [909-1171] and the Omawy dynasty in Spain[756-1031]. Before these dynasties, Quraysh ruled the Muslim state after the death of the prophet Mohammed, during the righteous successors, who belonged to Quraysh also.

11-Spiritual influence of Quraysh after destroying the Abbasy Empire:

Ten years after destroying the Abbasy Empire by the Mogul, the Mameluk military regime who ruled Egypt and Syria defeated the Mogul armies, and then the new powerful Empire of the Mameluk revived the Abbasy dysteny in Cairo as the religious body that gave political legitimacy to the military Mameluk regime and its ex- slave rulers. The Abbasy Khalifa was a follower of the Mameluk Emperor to confirm and serve his legality during the Mameluk era until the Ottoman Emperor destroyed the Mameluk regime in 1715.

12-Quraysh was the present/absent factor of the Non - Arabic Muslim States:

The Ottoman Emperor [Sultan Saleem; the first] after occupied Egypt, he returned home carrying with him the last Abbasy Khalifa; Al Motawkkel. After the death of Al Motawakkel, the Ottoman Emperor became the religious khalifa of the Muslim World, especially when the Ottoman Empire occupied most of the Muslim world, and continued Al Jihad against the west in the name of Islam as Quraysh used to do before. 

It was the first time that one ruler who was not Arabic, nor from Quraysh, became Al Khalifa, or the religious ruler, but the Ottoman Emperor had the religious legality to rule most of the Arabic and Muslim Nations in his Empire as long as he continued Al Jihad against the West. This confirmed the faith of [Al Khawarej] or the revolutionists who believe some centuries before the Ottoman Empire that Al Halifax or the Muslim religious ruler could be any righteous Muslim, Arabic or Non Arabic.            

The Mameluk Emperor was not Arabic, but he had the Muslims aspects of righteousness by keeping the spiritual Qurayshy Abbasy Khalifa among his servants and by Al Jihad against the west and its crusaders. The Ottoman Emperor himself became the Khalifa, and confirmed his legality by invading Europe in the name of Islam.

We can see the same aspect in the two states which controlled North Africa then Spain and warred the west in the name of Islam. They were : the state of Al Morabeteen.[1056-1147] then after it, the state of Al Mowahhedeen.[1130-1269].The rulers of the two state were not from Quraysh nor from Arabs, but they substituted this “shortage” by Al Jihad against the west.

In this Non - Qurayshy regimes, Quraysh was the present absent factor. Those regimes tried to apply the Qurayshy stile, and to overmatch it to substitute their UN - Qurayshy origin.

13-Al Khawarej [the revolutionists]; the pioneers of Anti - Quraysh:-                                   

These regimes were also inspired by Al Khawarej, the early revolutionists in the Muslim history. Al Khawarej were many clans from different Arab desert tribes, which used to live in Najd, south of Iraq and Syria, and around the Persian Arabic gulf, Their way of living was to invade the green villages south of Iraq and Syria. They converted to Islam to get rid of the leadership of Quraysh, but when Quraysh converted to Islam itself these tribes revolted under the name of apostasy and the leader of many false prophets, the most famous one of them was Mosailama,  who said” To Quraysh the half of the earth but we have the another half.”

After they were defeated they became soldiers under the leadership of Quraysh in the armies that invaded Iraq, Iran, Syria, Egypt, and North Africa, and establishing the Arab Muslim Empire. This empire was controlled by the Omawy family in the time of the third Righteous ruler; Othman son of Affan.

 In this time, the leaders of Quraysh monopolized the green lands south Iraq, claiming it ‘the garden of Quraysh.’  It was the land that these tribes used to invade and exploit before Islam. Therefore some of the clans of these tribes revolted again, and killed Othman, and appointed Aly, the cousin of the prophet instead of him. That was the reason of the civil wars between Muslims.

These revolutionist clans, who became Al Khawarej, were with Ali against their enemy Moaweyah, the leader of the Omawy family, but they revolted again against Aly himself for some fake reasons. The real reason was their wish to get rid of any ruler of Quraish, so their main aspects were their zeal in the field of the religion, and in the field of battles to overmatch Quraysh. Because Quraysh was their real enemy, Al Khawarej made their Jihad against all Muslims, specially the Arabs and the Quraysh tribe. Their victims included children, women and old people.

Al Khawarej continued their wars against the Omawy family in every part of the empire, until the collapse of the Omawy Empire in 750.

Their wars against the Abbasy Empire were abated during the strength of the Abbasy Empire, but their wars appeared strongly under the name of the Al Zenj movement [869-883], then the movement of Al Karameta, [372-982]

The two movements were against the Qurayshy abbasy dynasty, and its wrongs. The two movements used Al Jihad as a religious justification to invade Iraq and Syria, killing the civilians and the innocent people, men, women and children, and destroying every thing, including the caravans of the pilgrimage and the sacred stone of Muslims in the Sacred Mosque. Finally, the two movements could not establish a state, but instead they – along with their early pioneers [Al Khawarej] confirmed the new concept of Al Jihad, which includes killing the innocent people, men, women and children in the name of Islam.  They could not kill the powerful image of Quraysh; therefore they killed the innocent people who were the victims and worshippers of Quraysh.

It seems here as we are talking about the current religious terrorist movements of our time. Really, this is the religious historical roots of the terrorist movements of our time.

Now, let’s talk about the Arabs in the modern history.

Arabs in Modern History

1-Najd resumes its role

In the dry arid desert of Najd, during Middle ages, the mighty wild Arab clans from many tribes used to attack the caravan of the pilgrimages, and any caravans passed by their desert which lies between Iraq, and Al Hejaz, where the sacred places of Muslims. This was their means of life, and they had no religious justification. However, they had such a justification under the motto of Al Khawarej, Al Zinj , and Al karameta movements where their [secular] war for loot became an [ Islamic Jihad] which gave them the permission to kill the innocent civilian people, and/or enslave them as well.

During the Ottoman Empire, Al Hejaz and its sacred places was under the custody of the Ottoman Emperor himself, but its domestic governance was under the rule of Al Ashraf, means, people who belong to the family of Aly, the cousin of the prophet, and his wife Fatima, the daughter of the prophet.

Under the Ottomans, the Arab- Muslim countries became so backward, and the wild tribes of Najd were more backward and savage. The situation became worst during the weakness of the Ottoman Empire from the eighteenth century, when the strong European states; England, France, and Russia, competed to inherit the [Sick demised man.].                                     

The response of this situation came from two different places in the Muslim Arab world, Najd and Egypt. Najd was the most backward place in that time, and Egypt was the only place which still had some enlightenment and some contact with the civilized world. Each place had reacted according to its nature.

 Najd reacted by giving the Wahaby doctrine which revived the faith of Al Khawareg, Al Zinj, and Al Karameta.  Under the name of Islam and Al Jihad the first Saudi state was established, according to the basic treaty between the fanatic zealot scholar [ imam] Mohammed son of Abdel Wahab, and the prince Mohammed son of Saud, in 1745, confirming the two words: Blood, blood and Destruction, destruction. By the wahaby Jihad, the small Saudi principality became a mighty terrorist state, threatened the weak vulnerable Ottomam Empire by its continuous attacks, and its bloodsheds and destructions in the Arabian Peninsula, Syria and Iraq.

2- Egypt

Egypt reacted according to its peaceful nature and its historical, civilized, and geographical aspects under the rule of its ambitious leader; Mohammed Aly, who modernized Egypt by the help of Europe, specially France, as a first step to reform the Ottoman Empire itself. The helpless Ottoman Emperor was against his ambitious ruler in Egypt. To destroy him and to destroy the Saudi Wahaby notorious state in the same time, the Ottoman Sultan ordered Mohammed Aly of Egypt to eliminate the Saudi state. Mohammed Aly wanted to get rid of the backward quarrelsome Ottoman army in Egypt to initiate his own new strong modern Egyptian army which may enable him to reform the Ottoman Empire, or to establish a new Empire instead of it. The campaign against the Saudi state was the only way to get rid of the old Ottoman army and to establish a new one. After some years and some battles, Mohammed Aly destroyed the Saudi state, and its capital ’Al Dar’eiah’ in 1818.                      

After two decades, the European countries helped the helpless Ottoman Sultan against Mohammed Aly, when he was about to eliminate the Ottoman Empire and establish a new strong one under his rule. By dismantle the Egyptian power in 1840; the next step was the occupation of the Arab countries one by one, including Egypt itself, which was occupied by England in 1882

3-Arabs under the European colonialism:

Religious and National states instead of Democratic states

Between 1840- 1914, Great British, France, Germany, and finally Italy were the major players, while the demised Ottoman Empire and Arabs  and Muslims were the victims of that play which was ended by the world war one. England occupied Egypt and Sudan, and had its influence in Iran, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabic coast, beside millions of Muslims in India. France occupied Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco. Finally, Italy occupied Libya by 1911, while Germany tried to root its influence peacefully in Iraq, through its friendship with the helpless Ottoman Emperor, who still had Syria, Iraq and some parts of the Arabian Peninsula.

This European colonialism had strong reaction inside Arab world and in the old demised Ottoman Empire as well. The Ottoman Sultan responded to Germany against England and France, giving Germany the free opportunity to threaten the British interests in India, Iraq, Iran and the Gulf. In the same time he declared the slogan of the “Islamic league” to evoke millions of Muslims against England in Egypt and India, and against France in Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and other parts of Africa.

This declaration of the Islamic league means the call for Al Jihad. Being unable to fight the mighty two empires of British and France, the available way of Jihad for Muslims was to massacre the Arab Christian minorities in Syria, and their population in Lebanon, where there were a lot of Western Christian missions.  This declaration – also- confirmed the Wahaby faith of Najd, and gave it a publicity and acceptance, instead of the peaceful passive Muslim Sufi faith.   To face the Mighty Christian European occupation, the Wahabi doctrine was the only way, and its people were freedom fighters, while its thousands of victims were just Arabs; Muslims and Christians.

Najd became famous and no longer forgotten, The military campaign of Mohammed Aly destroyed the first Saudi state, but the Wahaby doctrine became more rooted inside Najd where its people found in this faith their own identity. The Wahaby faith found more followers outside Najd, not only because it was the available reaction against the Christian European colonialism, but also because the Sufi Muslim scholar were too ignorant to rebut the Wahaby arguments.

In the last decades of the nineteenth century, the Saudi family rebuilt its state, but they destroyed it by their own domestic disputes and wars. This second Saudi state gave another revive to the Wahaby faith, and made it the controversial issue of Muslim world from Morocco to India, and during the time pilgrimage every year. The Wahaby doctrine had thousands of ardent followers and partisans in Syria and India, where there were a continuous bigotry and enmity between Muslims and Non - Muslims. The Wahaby Faith gave the religious justification to change this enmity to be bloodsheds.

The Christian Arabs of Lebanon were the victims. They suffered many massacres in the late decades of the nineteenth century. This resulted in a big immigration to South and North America, and to the birth of the Arab Nationalism, which was upheld firstly by the Christian Arabs of Lebanon to defy the Islamic league of the Ottoman Sultan Abdel Hameed, the second, by replacing the Arab nation against the Turkish nation, and excluding the religion [of Islam] from the field of struggle. Sate’e Al Hosary, the Lebanon thinker was the pioneer of advocating this Arab Nationalism along with his colleges between Egypt and Syria.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, the Arab soil was ready to give birth of the third Saudi state [1902-1932] and the ideology of the Arab Nationalism in Syria and Iraq. The two creeds helped in destroying the vulnerable liberal political life of Egypt which lasted between 1860 -1952.

By eliminating the Egyptian young democracy and the European occupation, the Arab world had only two choices in the second half of the twentieth century: the National state [Nasser of Egypt, Kaddafy of Libya, Asad of Syria, and And Saddam of Iraq] or the religious fanatic state. [Saudi kingdom and Muslim Brothers]. This needs some details.

4- Arabs [1914-1952]

Before world war one, the Ottoman Empire allied with Germany against British and France. To eliminate the danger of the Ottoman Islamic League, the British authorities promised the Egyptians to give them the independence if they helped the allies in war. They also allied with Al Shareef [the honorable] Husain; the ruler of Al Hijaz to revolt against the Ottoman Empire accusing them to be the enemy of Islam, and the British promised him to be the king of the Arabs after their victory. In that time, the prince Abdel Aziz, son of Saud used his army in occupying more provinces in Najd, Al Ahsa’a, and other territories in the Arabian Peninsula.

By the end of the world war one, the Saudi state was the strongest state in the Arabian Peninsula, while Al Shareef Husain of Al Hijaz was deceived by his British friends, and his military efforts and his Arabic revolution was in Vain. Finally, he lost Al Hijaz after Abdel Aziz son of Saud defeated him in 1926. Abdel Aziz son of Saud became the [Sultan of Najd and it’s append ants and the prince of Al Hejaz] while Al Shareef Husain became homeless!!

Al Shareef Husain was not the only loser, because the victorious allies plotted against their other Arab and Muslim followers. The British Empire refuse to give Egypt its independence, arrested the Egyptian leaders and exiled them. Before liberating Syria and Iraq from the Ottoman occupation, British and France had their own secret pact. Accordingly; British got Iraq and France got Syria and Lebanon, while Palestine was given to the Zionists to be a Jewish state, instead of its Arab owners.

This was more than disappointment. It rooted the enmity inside the Arabs more and more towards the West, specially, during the Arab liberal movements against the Western colonialism between [1919- 1955.] which raised the slogan of the Arab Nationalism in Syria and Iraq, and the Egyptian freedom in Egypt.

The religious Ottoman Empire was abrogated and replaced by fascists Turkish leaders in 1924.This made the Islamic world without its Muslim body of leadership [Al Khelafah], after thirteen centuries. This gave the Saudi prince Abdel Aziz more credit to be the promising leader of the Islamic world instead of the former Ottoman Islamic leadership, specially, when he added Al Hijaz to his possession or custody by 1926.

To face the new situation, and to confine the new promising Wahaby leader inside his desert, the British had to revive the house of their disappointed former ally; Al Shareef Husain through his two sons; Abdollah and Faisal.    The British created the kingdom of Jordon to help the promising state of Israel, and to stand as a barrier between the Saudi state and its hope to advance north to Syria. They also gave Iraq to Faisal to stop the advance of Ibn Saud towards Iraq; the historical vital space of the tribes of Najd, and the first Saudi state.

By the advice of his Egyptian counselor Hafiz Wahbah, the tough nomadic Wahaby Saudi leader Abdel Aziz had a clever political agenda to make the third Saudi state survive more time than the second and the first states. The third Saudi state was surrounded by enemies: north, in Syria, and Iraq, where the two sons of his enemy Al Shareef Husain, and in East by the Sheeah in Gulf and in Iran, and in south, by the Sheeah of Yemen. Inside his new state he had another enemies, the Sheeah and Al Ashraf or” honorable ones” in Al Hijaz, and the other tribes and clans whom were terrified and defeated by the tough Saudi state and its wild fanatic soldiers; Al Ikhwan, or “the brothers.”

Those Al Ikhwan; the brothers, were savage Arab clans who were taught the Wahaby teachings as an Islamic commandments. They found inside the Wahaby doctrine the religious justification to rout, rob and kill the other people as a Jihad. By their swords Abdel Aziz built his Saudi state step by step, but when he wanted to modernize his backward state by the help of Egypt and the West, Al Ikhwan - who were taught by Abdel Aziz and his scholars that Non Wahaby people should be fought or killed - revolted against him. That was an additional problem inside the Wahaby doctrine and the Saudi state as well.   The state and its Middle aged doctrine were in bad need to be adjusted to accord the modern world of the twentieth century.

Egypt and the Muslims of India were the solution for the Saudi state. By Egypt and Muslims of India, Abdel Aziz could find allies who might help him in facing Iran in east and Syria an Iraq in north. Moreover, in the two civilized peoples of Egypt and India he could find Muslim scholars who might reform or adjust the Wahaby doctrine.

The Wahaby faith in that time had millions of followers among Muslims of India, where they found in it their satisfaction in the religious bigotry against the Non -Muslim Indians. The Wahaby doctrine was the real inspiration of creating Pakistan and dividing India as one of the greatest mistakes of the twentieth century. For this mistake, there were hundreds thousands of victims in India and Pakistan in the twentieth century, and there will be another victims in our present century.

Egypt was more important to Abdel Aziz, than India and its Non - Arab far away Muslims and their problems. His Egyptian counselor Hafiz Wahbah, was keen to orient the Saudi prince towards Egypt; the civilized leader of the Arab Muslim world, the oldest state of the world, the nearest and the biggest Arab Muslim population, the state that destroyed the first Saudi state in the nineteenth century, and might help the third Saudi state to survive if the Wahaby doctrine had its trend inside Egypt.

In that time [1900-1926] Egypt had only one problem; its practical religious faith was the suphy peaceful Muslim faith which confirmed the nature of its peaceful people. So, the only solution was to change the Suphy Egyptian faith to be Wahaby under the favorite Muslim slogan of Sunna; or the teachings attributed to the prophet Mohammed.

It was easy to a scholar like Hafiz Wahbah to think that way, not only because he disliked the western colonialism in Egypt and the Arab Muslim world, but also he believed that the Suphy faith was no longer suitable in the time of struggle for freedom. As he was one of the students of the Egyptian religious reformist Imam Mohammed Abdu, who criticized the Suphy faith and the Wahabi as well, Hafiz Wahba had a hope to reform the Wahaby from inside, by the help of its leader, Abdel Aziz, who had the same hope.

By the efforts of the Saudi prince and his Egyptian counselor and by the help of the Egyptian intellectuals- many of them were friends and colleges of Hafiz Wahbah, the Wahaby doctrine had- suddenly- many foundations inside Egypt in few years. Between 1926- 1928, the largest body of the suphy faith named ‘Al Jam’eiah Al Share’iah”, means the Jurisdiction Association, was changed to be ardent enemy of the Suphy faith. “Al Shobban Al Muslemeen,”means the Muslim youth, was established to recruit the Egyptian youth, trained and indoctrinate them the Wahaby faith, they initiated “Ansar Al Sunna” or The Partisans of Sunna, to advocate the Wahaby faith among the Egyptian masses. Finally, an ambitious young man from the Muslim youth established Al “Ikhwan Al Muslemeen”, or Muslim Brothers in 1928, he was Hasan Al Banna [1902-1948]

In only twenty years [1928-1948] Hasan Al Banna could establish fifty thousand branches of Muslim Brothers all over Egypt, from Alexandria to Aswan. More over he established the international organization of the Muslim Brothers, which helped Abdel Aziz against the ruler of Yemen, by creating a revolution inside Yemen, killing the ruler, frightening his son, and making him responded to Abdel Aziz and his claims of the borders between them. Muslim Brothers and its public and secret organizations inside and outside Egypt urged the Egyptian regime to assassinate Hasan Al Banna and persecute his followers between 1948- 1952.

This distinguish achievement of Hasan Al Banna was not only because of his cleverness, and/or the Saudi help, but basically because the Egyptian soil was paved for one century 1840- 1940 to accept the Wahaby faith.

After they dismantled the Egyptian military power in 1840, Egypt still had some of its real human power, through its intellectual inside Al Azhar, the new modern schools and the experts and the scholars who were sent to Europe.  

This human intellectual power was the birth of the new educated middle class which changed the Egyptian history in the twentieth century. Poor Egyptians came from villages to Cairo and Al Azhar seeking to improve their social status by the religious education which was free and available in that time. It was the only way for any helpless young farmer to be distinguished among the society which was ruled by foreign minority used to despise the Egyptian farmers in particular. Some of those poor students of Al Azhar were sent to Europe, some of them had official ranks inside the Egyptian administration in time of modernization and development, others were still scholars inside Al Azhar and the religious body of Egypt which controlled many aspects of life in that time. Some of them had a high rank in the Egyptian society which was –officially- consisted of different ranks, the lowest of them was the farmers and the masses, and the highest were the minority foreign class and its leadership; the dynasty of Mohammed Aly.

Although the Egyptian merchants and businessmen were the core of the middle class, but they were –generally- servants of the high class which controlled the Egyptian cultivated lands and the political field as well. The new educated class knew the suffering of the poor Egyptians and had the hope for reform. 

Beside Al Azhar Mohammed Aly- reluctantly-had to recruit the Egyptian farmers in his new army, but under the leadership of the foreign officers, lest they might revolt against him. During some decades, some of the educated Egyptians became officers, and revolted against the corrupted regime and its wrongs in the Orabi Movements which belonged to the Egyptian Officer Ahmed Oraby. The British Empire used this revolution to occupy Egypt in 1882.    Here we can say the educated middle class in Egypt produced its first revolution in 1882 after about forty years of dismantling the Egyptian power in 1840

In that time [1840- 1882] there were some aspects of democracy, in the early Egyptian parliament, newspapers, and some parties. These aspects beside the enlightened class paved the way to the great Egyptian revolution against the British occupation in 1919 after about forty years from the British colonialism in 1882. This great Egyptian revolution of 1919 paved the way to the famous Egyptian revolution in 1952, after about thirty years, the revolution which changed the history of the Arab world and the colonialism as well.

During 1923 to 1952 democracy in Egypt had more positive aspects, through the new constitution, the strong parliament, free media, and free parties. But the whole picture was not promising. The Egyptian power and wealth were controlled by the royal dynasty and the minority, and they together were controlled by the British influence, while the new educated generations of the low class and the middle class were deprived and frustrated. Because the freedom needs Justice, and justice was confiscated in Egypt in that time, the new educated generations of young men denied that democracy which – in their opinion – gave justification to the continuous rule of the British colonialism and the foreign royal dynasty and the corrupted parties and leaders.

 These new generations were aware of their rights and had their own expertise in struggle against the British occupation in 1919 and had another expertise in demonstrations and other social and political activities. They also were influenced by the new political and religious ideologies came from the West [Communism and Fascism] and from the Islamic world, [Wahaby]. Accordingly; Ahmed Husain established his new party “Egypt; the Girl” as a copy of the Italian style, and there were many secret communist organizations, but the biggest organization was the Muslim Brothers, in its secret organization and secret militia, and in its propaganda, and in its influence inside the masses.

These protesting movements were the soil that produced the “free officers” who made the Egyptian military revolution in 1952, by the leadership of Gamal Abdel Nasser, and by the help of the Muslim Brothers.

5- Arabs between 1952- 2001:

Abdel Aziz son of Saud, gave the mission of advocating the Wahaby doctrine to his followers in Egypt and India, and concentrated in modernizing his new state by the help of the west and allying with the new power; the U.S. A. He gave his new state his family name [Saudi] in 1932, and waited patiently the Wahaby seeds to give its fruits for the benefits of his kingdom and family. The discovery of oil in his kingdom and the reaction of the Egyptian revolution hastened his dreams to come true after his death.

In few years Nasser ‘s regime in Egypt had its features; the Arab nationalism instead of the Wahaby doctrine of his enemies “Muslim Brothers”, allying with the Soviet Union against the west imperialism, and finally, sacrificing democracy for social justice and the struggle against Israel and imperialism and its satellites, means Saudi kingdom, Jordon, and others .

In 1950’s and 1960’s, Nasser inspired the Arab, Muslim, and the third world as freedom fighters against the imperialism, and helped many nations to free themselves and to get their independence. By his charisma and the status of Egypt; the leader state, Nasser had the hope to unite the Arab nation in one state under his leadership. Being overloaded of all this struggle and hopes, Nasser as one person was unable to achieve his dreams. Being a dictator, who had an endorsement and support of the majority of the people, Nasser did not realize the urgent need of democracy to activate all the people with him, and to protect his regime. By the hard defeat in 1967, and the Israeli occupation in Egyptian and Arabic lands, Nasser’s dreams was gone, and his practical aim was to free the occupied lands, as another excuse to confiscate democracy.

Actually, his real death was in the defeat of 1967, and his official death in 1970, was the end of the Arab nationalism and its dreams, but its nightmares continued by others who tried to play the role of Egypt and Nasser.

The defeat of Nasser, Egypt and the Arab nationalism, gave a great victory to the Saudi state and its Wahaby doctrine. In 1954 the Muslim Brothers who helped Nasser in his revolution, tried to assassinate him, but they were convicted and tortured, and many of them escaped to the Saudi state, which had rapid positive changes in its wealth by oil, and in its development by the West and the Egyptian scholars of the Muslim Brothers. However, the greatest victory came to the Saudi state in the time of Sadat [1970-1981]

In the time of Nasser, Sadat was a friend of the Saudi regime, and the representative of Nasser in the Islamic organizations, which were influenced by the Saudi’s and their Wahaby faith. After Nasser Sadat had the chance to change all the policy of Egypt, Allied to the West and the Saudi state, fought Israel and had a peaceful pact with it, changed the social justice of Nasser, giving instead of it free market which made the poor masses starving, but he gave some aspects of democracy under his control, and according to his wishes. When the hungry masses revolted against him in January 18-19, 1977, his few democratic aspects gone step by step, finally, he lost his life by the religious fanatic trend which was revived by him.

From 1987 until now, Egypt was given free to the Saudi state and its Wahaby traditions and scholars who controlled most of the Egyptian administrations. For example; the Sheeah in Egypt are persecuted in Egypt to satisfy the fanatic Wahaby, and the Quranic intellectual trend who believe in Islam as the religion of peace, freedom and Justice, is also persecuted because its belief contradicts the Wahaby dogmas. By their money, the Saudi elders corrupt the Egyptian officials inside the regimes, its high class, and even the low class through the false marriages and the cheap employments.

Saudi kingdom became richer by the increasing price of oil, because of the Egyptian half victory of October 1973. Instead of having a fare portion in this millions came easily to the Saudi and other states, Egypt was punished by these states when Sadat chose the peaceful way in the Arab Israeli conflict, to solve the economical problem of Egypt after its half victory of 1973. These states allied with Sadam of Iraq against Egypt, and made him their leader to continue the war against Israel. Sadam continued his policy in threatened the oil states, blackmailing them. Finally, he took their money to fight Iran instead of Israel. After having nothing of this war, Sadam invaded Kuwait n 1990 ending the dream of the Arab Nationalism, changing it to a horrible nightmare.

In the one geographic region of Syria and Iraq, the creed of Arab Nationalism was confirmed by many historical, political and social reasons, but in the new states created in the region by the British and French after the world war one, it was impossible to unite the region in one state. The powerful party of “Al Ba’ath”; means resurrection, came to the power in Syria and in Iraq, during the life of its leader Michael Aflak. But his students who ruled the two Nationalist regimes in Syria and Iraq were ardent enemies. More over, the nationalists in Syria conspired against the United Arab Republic, the new state which united Egypt and Syria in the time of Nasser [1958-1962].

Why it was impossible to unite them according to their Arab Nationalism?   The strong reason was the Wahabi faith and its reactions in this region of Syria and Iraq.

These nationalists in the Arab world - including Nasser himself- had their own reasons to use the Arab Nationalism. This slogan was used firstly in Syria to face the Wahaby faith and it’s “Mojahedeen”.  In early as the middle of the nineteenth century, the followers of the Wahaby used to kill the Arab; Christians and Sheeah. The two peoples were persecuted also by the Ottoman Empire in some degrees. In spite of the enmity between the Ottomans and the Wahaby, each of them had a Muslim religious motto which should be faced by another motto; the Arab Nationalism. The Arab Christians were the pioneers of advocating the Arab Nationalism and Michael Aflak; the Christian, was the thinker and the founder of the biggest nationalist party in Syria and Iraq.

In Syria, the minority of Sheea understood the lesson, and after some coups the minority of Al Sheeah Al Nasereyah, Al Alaweyah, has taken over Syria under the slogan of Arab Nationalism, and by the leadership of Hafiz Al Asad.           It was their opportunity to revenge against the majority of Al Sunna, who are Wahaby by the faith, and Muslim Brothers by the political trend.

In Iraq, The danger of the Wahaby was intense in 1920’s. The Arab Nationalism was the available solution to face the Wahaby faith, but it produced different military bloody coups, from Abdel Kareem Kasim to the two brothers Abdel Salam and Abdel Rahman Aarif, to Ahmed Hasan Al Bakr.  Finally, the assassin of the different coups becomes himself the leader. It’s Sadam Husain, the problem of the world for two decades.

There is another funny example of the Arab nationalism. It’s the colonel Mo’ammar Al Kaddafy of Libya. He was a Zealot of Nasser and wanted to be a copy of him. But he is from Libya, not from Egypt. Libya is not the country that may enable him to be the leader of the Arab after Nasser, and after the disappearance of the Egyptian leadership in the Arab world. He tried to buy off Sadat, but Sadat who belonged to the same category of Kaddafy; the Military group who take over their countries, was not interested in the ambitious young Libyan leader. Besides, Sadat had already chosen his way with the U.S.A. and the Saudi kingdom. The misunderstanding between the two men became a war between Egypt and Libya, after many plots against Egypt by Al Kaddafi.        Al Kaddafi appointed himself ‘The Faithful of the Arab Nationalism’ and continued in making noise here and there, but no one pays him attention. Finally, he declared his disbelief in the Arab nationalism, and has Africa instead of it, to try another play, spending the rest of the oil wealth of his country.

In 1980’s , 1990’s the Saudi Wahaby influence reached the top, not only because of the disappearance of the Egypt and its leadership, and sun sit of the Arab Nationalism, but also because of the influence of the U.S.A, which recruited the Wahaby faith in its war against the communists in Muslim world. The American doors were widely opened to welcome the Saudi Wahaby preachers who had one aim; converting America to Islam in twenty years, meaning - of course - converting them to their Wahaby faith. They used the American freedom of belief - which is banned inside the Saudi kingdom- to establish their Islamic centers and schools and other secret and public organizations as they usually do in Egypt, Pakistan and other African and Asian countries. It is the same policy which was planned by their father Abdel Aziz, but was applied cleverly by his two sons; Faisal and Fahd in a proper time.  Afghanistan was the last night of this honey moon of the American Saudi relationships.

In Afghanistan’s field, the different Arab regimes were united in one mission, to encourage their religious oppositions to move to there, where they involved in hard wars against the communist regime. After some years from the collapse of that regime, the hardest line of the religious trends took over the country. It was the Taleban who were the students of the Wahaby schools in Pakistan and Afghanistan, the same copy of Al Ikhwan or the Brothers in the time of Abdel Aziz.  Those students inside and outside the U.S are the promising Wahaby generation according to the Saudi plan. This current generation in Algeria and Egypt is trying to take over the regimes there through its continuous bloodsheds. But in Afghanistan, this generation took over the country under its real name; The Taleban. Those Taleban allied with their colleges from other countries under the Saudi leader Osama Ibn Laden and his secret terrorist network of Al Qa’eda.

Because they failed in converting America to their faith, the other choice was ready. It was the attack of September 11, 2001.

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