Prof. Dr. Abdelrazak Mansour Ali:
The diameters of the heavens defy NASA

د. عبد الرزاق علي Ýí 2023-04-20


The diameters of the heavens defy NASA.

Prof. Dr. Abdelrazak Mansour Ali


Abstract: The diameters of space or heavens are the electric arc (arc discharge) = an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces a prolonged electrical discharge. The current through a normally nonconductive medium such as air produces a plasma; the plasma may produce visible light. An arc discharge is initiated either by thermionic emission or by field emission. And apart from meteoroids and orbital debris, most of those hazards are the product of a high energy charged particle radiation environment that are not even visible to the naked eye. And given that environment, spacecraft charging is inevitable. The challenge and conflict continue between the continued modernization and design of spacecraft and between the discharge arcs of the heavens and the earth. The amazing thing is that the copper material that is used to protect the space vehicles from the high temperature is the one that can be a reason for the destruction of the vehicle because copper is characterized as the most conductive metal for heat and electricity, which will absorb and condense the electrical radiation and thermal energy on the spacecraft that leads to its destruction - The flame of this conflict will not be extinguished by scientific and technological developments, and this reminds us of the conflict and the continuous war between humans and microbes. So, whenever we discover a vaccination or medication to immunize us against microbes, the microbes also change their skin to escape from the effect of medication, vaccination, and even from the human immune system.

Keywords” Diameters, High energy, Hazards,Spacecraft, Copper, Arc discharge


Diameters of the heavens and the earth= “Space Discharge Arcs”

They are high-energy radiation curves present in the space, invisible to the naked eye that result from the electrical discharge of charged particles in space and are therefore called "discharge arcs".

An electric arc (arc discharge) is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces a prolonged electrical discharge. The current through a normally nonconductive medium such as air produces a plasma; the plasma may produce visible light. An arc discharge is initiated either by thermionic emission or by field emission [1]

It is a type of electrical discharge that occurs when electrons flow between two conductors, usually metal, in an environment with a gas or vacuum. The conductors can be wires, rods, or other objects that can carry an electrical current. When the electrical potential difference between the two conductors is high enough, the electrons will flow from one conductor to the other, causing a spark or arc. This can happen in both gaseous and vacuum environments. [2]

An electric arc has a non-linear relationship between current and voltage. Once the arc is established (either by progression from a glow discharge or by momentarily touching the electrodes then separating them), increased current results in a lower voltage between the arc terminals. This negative resistance effect requires that some positive form of impedance (as an electrical ballast) be placed in the circuit to maintain a stable arc. This property is the reason uncontrolled electrical arcs in apparatus become so destructive since once initiated, an arc will draw more and more current from a fixed-voltage supply until the apparatus is destroyed [3]

- Part of the energy of an electrical arc forms new chemical compounds from the air surrounding the arc: these include oxides of nitrogen and ozone, the second of which can be detected by its distinctive sharp smell. These chemicals can be produced by high-power contacts in relays and motor commutators, and they are corrosive to nearby metal surfaces. Arcing also erodes the surfaces of the contacts, wearing them down and creating high contact resistance when closed [4].

If its charges accumulate more than anybody swimming in space can bear, such as (spacecraft), then it will have an electric discharge to form what is known in space science as vacuum arcs because they are like engineering arcs, which are basically strong electric currents that damage any space object that collides with it.

 It is proven that the presence of high-energy radiation is the most dangerous factor that can damage space devices and technologies. Radiation-induced degradation is probably the most studied and complicated factor that needs to be considered when dealing with the space environment. In particular, the interaction with atomic oxygen can lead to severe corrosion. Regarding the geomagnetic field, its degradation pathways are related to those from trapped charged particles; thus, its effects on materials are the same as those due to particle radiation. The plasma environment is another serious threat to the long-term function of spacecraft. In general, it can be classified into hot and cold plasma (the former is the one generated by solar activity, and the latter comes mainly from Earth’s atmosphere). [5] They can damage electronic components, destroy sensors, or damage important materials such as the thermal control coating of space vehicles and can also interfere with communication systems in the form of fake commands such as computer viruses.

  Let us give an example on the ground of the electric discharge arcs that occur with trains that run by electricity. Arc flashes occur when the arm extending from the train (the pantograph) loses its connection with the power cable above - this loss of connection is what causes the loud explosion and sparks, and the trains lose their power - (see photo at the bottom of the article).

  The arcs can simulate a system controlling operating modes, for example causing positional changes or erratic turns - the brackets also emit electromagnetic radiation and cause interference and noise that can impede both command and control commands received, and feedback received as well as scientific data signals. Arcing can be dangerous and can cause fires or damage to electrical equipment. Electrical arcing produces an arc flash. This can cause injuries such as third-degree burns, cardiac arrest, hearing loss, blindness, nerve damage, and even death. Severe burns can occur if the victim is within a few feet from the arc. There have been staged tests that showed temperatures over 2250 degrees Celsius on an individual’s hands and neck standing near the arc. blast [2]

spacecraft has several essential components, such as an engine, power subsystem, steering system, and communications system, in addition to science instruments. Most of these systems are housed in a section called the service module, while the science instruments make up the payload module. These are encased inside the spacecraft’s main structural unit and connected by a ‘harness’, the electrical framework on which the spacecraft electronics systems. The communications system returns science data to scientists, and 'housekeeping' data, called telemetry, which allows engineers back on Earth to monitor the condition of the spacecraft. The on-board communications system also receives all incoming commands. Instructions are received from the ground in the form of individual commands or sequences to be executed at pre-defined times. The commands are processed by the data handling system that either executes them immediately or stores them for later execution. [6].

NASA Relies on Copper for Shuttle Engine

Shuttle engine's main combustion chamber liner of “NARLOY-Z” is surrounded by special plastic shield for electrodeposition of copper barrier. The world's most advanced rocket engine depends on copper and copper alloys. Three of these powerful engines are used in each of the four space shuttles built for the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). "Copper and copper alloys play an important role in all NASA space flights," according to R. Jeffrey Ding, project engineer at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. "During flight, the space shuttle main engines generate tremendous heat. Dissipating this heat is essential to maintaining the integrity of the engines. Copper is one of the most desirable metals for this requirement," says Ding. The chamber liners are made from a copper alloy called “NARLOY-Z” (96% copper, 3% silver, 0.5% zirconium) developed by North American Rockwell (now Rockwell International Corporation). “NARLOY-Z” has superior heat transfer properties, excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation and is not susceptible to any form of hydrogen embrittlement. In operation, the engines' main combustion chambers contain the burning propellant (hydrogen) and approach temperatures around 6,000F, the chamber liners must remain structurally sound for repeated use. Careful material selection and fabrication was critical [7].

ESA EURECA satellite solar array sustained arc damage.

Credits: ESA

Arc damage in laboratory tests of the chromic acid anodized thermal control coating covering ISS orbital debris shields.

Credits: NASA/T. Schneider


In April 2010, the Galaxy 15 telecommunications satellite was set adrift, wandering away from its assigned place in geosynchronous orbit. Reports in the scientific literature and space technology trade journals suggested Galaxy 15 (was a victim of spacecraft charging. Hot electrons roaming the outer radiation belt had pelted the satellite, causing a negative charge to build on its surface — a charging event. It could no longer receive radio contact from its owner, Intelsat. It took 8 months to reestablish contact and successfully reposition the satellite in its desired orbit.

. Engineering teams investigating the failure identified charging by high energy aurora electrons followed by an electrostatic discharge between the primary power cables as the likely cause of the power system damage. “The mission was a total loss. In geostationary orbit, there are a lot of hot electrons and during geomagnetic storms they build up. It’s a classic charging environment. Aurora charging is a similar problem, with hot electrons generated in the electric field structures above the Earth’s aurora zone that produce the northern and southern lights. Satellite designers have had to deal with these problems for years [8]

“Space is an interesting place. You tend to think of it as a big, empty void. But while space is a vacuum, it is far from empty. “For spacecraft operating in a space environment, hazards lurk everywhere. And apart from meteoroids and orbital debris, most of those hazards are the product of a high energy charged particle radiation environment that are not even visible to the naked eye. And given that environment, spacecraft charging is inevitable [9,10]

Hazard for Spacecraft

“The hazards caused by spacecraft charging are varied. If a charge builds up that is too big for the spacecraft’s material to hold, discharge arcs, which are essentially strong electrical currents, will occur. And depending on where those arcs go, they can damage electronic components, destroy sensors, or damage important materials such as thermal control coatings [11]

They can also show up in electrical systems as phantom commands. The arcs can spoof the attitude control system, for example, causing attitude changes or spin anomalies. The arcs also emit electromagnetic radiation and cause interference and noise that can hamper both incoming and outgoing command and control as well as science data signals.

“Charging can have big impacts on solar arrays and photovoltaic power systems,”. “You can get arcing between solar cells on the solar array. Currents can get bigger and bigger, which sustains the arcing, which can destroy the entire solar array. There have been cases where satellites have lost major parts of or all their power systems. And that’s catastrophic. You can completely lose the mission. [8]

Even seemingly benign charging that does not affect the spacecraft itself can have a major impact on science satellites that measure charged particles, such as the Magneto spherical Multi scale Mission, which employs several satellites to study the Earth’s magnetosphere. Even a small charge on the spacecraft can interfere with the satellites’ detection abilities of low energy “thermal” plasma. Active charge control systems are frequently employed by these kinds of science missions to suppress charging during times when critical measurements are to be made [12]

Mitigating the Hazard

The distinction between surface charging and internal charging is that internal charging is caused by energetic particles that can penetrate and deposit charge very close to a victim site. Surface charging occurs on areas that can be seen and touched on the outside of a spacecraft. Surface discharges occur on or near the outer surface of a spacecraft and discharges must be coupled to an interior affected site rather than directly to the victim. Energy from surface arcs is attenuated by the coupling factors necessary to get to victims (most often inside the spacecraft) and, therefore, is less of a threat to electronics. External wiring and antenna feeds, of course, are susceptible to surface charging. Internal charging, by contrast, may cause a discharge directly to a victim pin or wire with very little attenuation if caused by electron deposition in circuit boards, wire insulation, or connector potting. [13]

“Charging has always been a problem for as long as NASA and other space programs have been sending vehicles into space. “There were a lot of charging related anomalies in the 70s and 80s, but the number is dropping, because the more we understand it, the better we can build satellites to operate successfully. Every time there is a failure due to charging, we figure it out to make sure it doesn’t happen again. On average, the failures per decade is going down, which is good. It means we understand what is happening and spacecraft designers are following good design practices that mitigate charging. It has been shown that differential charging followed by discharging is a major source of spacecraft. Teams were assembled to work on NESC assessments to help mitigate spacecraft charging threats to NASA missions. For example, the JWST spacecraft and telescope systems are well designed and well equipped for its stay in orbit about the Sun-Earth Lagrange point 2 (L2) about 1.5 million kilometers from Earth. However, mission risks can be reduced by avoiding exposure to extreme solar flare particles and severe charging events during transit of the Earth’s radiation belts in the hours right after launch [8]. The best solution to mitigating charging hazards is good design. Just turning off the sensitive systems to avoid geomagnetic storms isn’t practical for most satellites. Good material selection is important. If we build satellites for geostationary orbit with conductive coatings on the outside, the arc will go out into space. Differential charging is the worst because arcs originating in one location on a spacecraft can damage systems on another part of the spacecraft [14].

Fortunately, design techniques to minimize the amount of differential charging are well understood.” Along with good design is testing, particularly in environments that expose the spacecraft components to arcing. And more design and testing are being done with computer modeling, he notes. “We can simulate the charge build up and variations in voltage across the vehicle. We can see the motion of the particles. A combination of both analytical work and testing yields the best satellite design,” he said. [8]

After knowing some information, we move on to the scenario of challenge and conflict between the diameters of the heavens and the earth on the one hand, and between spacecraft and satellites on the other hand, by contemplating these verses, God Almighty said (O assembly of jinn and humans! If you can penetrate beyond the realms of the heavens and the earth, then do so. ˹But˺ you cannot do that without ˹Our˺ authority -- Flames of fire and copper will be sent against you, and you will not be victorious able to defend) Ar-Rahman, verse 33,35.

That is, both the jinn and the human being can penetrate the barriers represented in the diameters of the heavens and the earth (discharge arcs) through the power of knowledge, but this will happen within the permissible limits, and whoever exceeds these limits and penetrates more deeper into space will find copper fire bolts that increase in strength with the increase in penetration into space because the discharge arcs and the electric current double in number and strength, in addition to the unique characteristic of copper with its superior ability to conduct electricity and heat, which multiplies the risks so that spacecraft fail to overcome = (You do not win)


1-The Arc Species "Zoo"". Arc Suppression Technologies. Retrieved March 28, 2023.)


3- Mehta, V.K. (2005). Principles of Electronics: for Diploma, AMIE, Degree & Other Engineering Examinations (9th, multicolor illustrative ed.). New Delhi: S. Chand. pp. 101–107. ISBN 978-81-219-2450-4.)

4- Lab Note #106 Environmental Impact of Arc Suppression". Arc Suppression Technologies. April 2011. Retrieved October 10, 2011.

5- Romano V, Agrestic A, Verduci R, D'Angelo G. Advances in Perovskites for Photovoltaic Applications in Space. ACS Energy Lett. 2022 Aug 12;7(8):2490-2514. Doi: 10.1021/acsenergylett.2c01099. E pub 2022 Jul 9. PMID: 35990414; PMCID: PMC9380018.

6- Anatomy of a spacecraft. European Space Agency – ESA. (2017).

7- Copper Development Association Inc. All Rights Reserved. (2022). Powered by Cascade CMS. 08/11/2017

8- Daniel Hoff Bauer, NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC)- Last Updated: Apr 7, 2020.

9- Love, S.G., and D.E. Brownlee. 1993. A direct measurement of the terrestrial mass accretion rate of cosmic dust. Science 262:550–553

10- National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 1995. Orbital Debris: A Technical Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

11- Vivek H. Dwivedi, Mark Hasegawa, Raymond Adomaitis, Hossein Salami, Alan Uy2 1NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD. 20771 2. University of Maryland College Park, Department of Chemical and Biomolecule Engineering College Park, MD. 20742

12- Mitigating in-space charging effects. In NASA Technical Handbook (2017).

13- Koon's, H. C., Mazur, J. E., Selenic, R. S., Blake, J. B., Fennell, J. F., Roeder, J. L., & Anderson, P. C. (2000). The impact of space weather environment on space systems. In 6th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference. AFRL/USAF, Bedford, MA.

14- Horne RB, Phillips MW, Glauber SA, Meredith NP, Hands ADP, Rydin KA, Li W. Realistic Worst Case for a Severe Space Weather Event Driven by a Fast Solar Wind Stream. Space Weather. 2018 Sep;16(9):1202-1215. Doi: 10.1029/2018SW001948. E pub 2018 Sep 3. PMID: 31031572; PMCID: PMC6473668.

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