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The Influence of Sunna-Deniers on the Development of the So-Called (Hadith Sciences) in the Abbasid Era


The Influence of Sunna-Deniers on the Development of the So-Called (Hadith Sciences) in the Abbasid Era



Published in June 19, 2019

Translated by: Ahmed Fathy





 We have received this question via email; we publish part of it followed by our reply: (... Dear Sir, ... Were there any Arab thinkers who denied hadiths and refuted them in the eras when hadiths were authored and written down by their contemporaries? One could hardly imagine that when Al-Bokhary, for instance, published his book of hadiths, no other thinkers criticized his book, especially that he have introduced strange religious notions and practices never known to others at the time. I mean that Al-Bokhary contradicts the ways of people in prayers, pilgrimage, fasting,...etc. in his hadiths; surely, there were some authors who protested against this distortion of Islam; did they write anything about this? Did they refute any hadiths? ... A Quranist friend of mine told me that many of hadiths authors/fabricators began their books by flattering those in power and authority, in their eras, in order to protect their hadiths from being criticized; is that true? How come ordinary people did not voice their protest against invented hadiths?! As a historian and a researcher in Muslim history, you can provide a detailed answer to my questions, I'm sure  ... Thank you ...).




Firstly: the fabricators of hadiths made their actual life-events as a religion by inventing devilish revelations to assert the experiences of themselves and of others; thus, they matched and agreed with their eras:

1- The hadiths of the Sunnite religion (e.g., the ones by Al-Bokhary), the Shiite religion (e.g., the ones by Al-Kulayni), and the Sufi religion (e.g., the ones by Al-Ghazaly) reflect the dominant culture of the eras of their authors. Those authors turned the widespread notions/practices into hadiths ascribed falsely to Muhammad or to the Lord God Himself. For the Muhammadans, such hadiths pertain to the divine revelation, and to Quranists, all hadiths pertain to the devilish revelations which contradict the Quran (i.e., Islam). Of course, Sufi authors made their dreams/visions of supposedly seeing God and/or Muhammad talking to them as a source of religious legislations; they assumed to contact God and to hold conversations with Him! They assumed to gain gnostic or esoteric knowledge that way! The Sufi notions of Satan have their influence over many Sunnite Hanbali authors; e.g., the Hanbali fiqh scholar and historian Ibn Al-Jawzy filled his book of history titled (Al-Muntazim) with narratives about dreams/visions; this includes hundreds of dreams to deify, sanctify, and heap praise on Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and to ascribe miracles to him; one of such dreams/lies is that God Himself visits the tomb of Ibn Hanbal! This is utter blasphemy! More details on the influence of Sufism on Hanbalism are found in our book titled "Hanbalism – the Mother of Wahabism – and the Destruction of Iraq in the Abbasid Era".  

2- Hence, Al-Bokhary and other authors like him matched and agreed with their eras and the dominant myths. Of course, there was a minority of thinkers who denied all hadiths; they never coped with their eras; yet, these thinkers had their influence on the development of the so-called (hadith sciences) in the Abbasid Era. 


Secondly: the deniers of hadiths emerged before hadiths were written down:

1- We refer readers to our subtitled-into-English episodes of the YouTube show titled "Quranic Moments" about the writing down of Sunnite books of hadiths and fiqh; we have written a lengthy article about this topic as well. We briefly repeat here that no Sunnite books were ever written during the Umayyad Era. They began to be written in the Abbasid Era; Malik's hadiths which spread orally were written down by his disciples in a book (with more than 20 different versions!) titled (Al-Mowata'). This is the first book of the Sunnite religion; the second one is titled (Al-Um) by Al-Shafei. This means that the fabrication of hadiths began with Malik and Al-Shafei; both men claimed that they 'heard' such hadiths from the generation of Muhammad's companions and their sons and followers in the next generation! This is the catastrophe known as Isnad or series of narrators; Isnad is based on the nonsensical, illogical claim that dead narrators supposedly spread hadiths ascribed by force to Muhammad and his contemporaries. This means that all hadiths are mere falsehoods and lies. We refer readers to our book on Isnad for more details.

2- Before writing down of the hadiths of (Al-Mowata') by the disciples of Malik, hundreds of hadiths spread orally inside mosques (as per the commands of the cunning Umayyad household members); Abou Hanifa was the very first thinker to refuse and reject all hadiths and their Isnad; he told his disciples that hadiths reflect the words/views of their authors only and that Muhammad never uttered any hadiths; he said that there is no possible way to verify any hadiths or to make sure that Muhammad uttered any of them. Sadly, Abou Hanifa was persecuted by both the Umayyads and the Abbasids; he died in prison by being poisoned by the Abbasid caliph Abou Jaffer Al-Mansour in 150 A.H.; by the way, it was the same year when Al-Shafei was born. Abou Hanifa was a pioneer among the Al-Mu'tazala group of thinkers/philosophers; this group of thinkers continued to reject and to disbelieve in all hadiths and they assert in their books that hadiths are never part of Islam. The author/thinker Al-Jahiz was the last prominent member of the Al-Mu'tazala group; he died in 255 A.H.; this means he was a contemporary of Al-Bokhary who died in 256 A.H.     


Thirdly: the influence of the Abbasid caliphate on the flourishing of hadiths fabrication:

1- Before the establishment of the Abbasid caliphate, the rebels led by the Abbasids in secret raised the motto of (Satisfaction is attained only by a ruler from the household of Prophet Muhammad); the call for rebellion against the unjust Umayyads included orally spreading the hadiths about the so-called (awaited Mehdi) who would be the just imam/ruler or caliph of all 'Muslims' and he would emerge from among the members of the household of Muhammad. This awaited 'holy' imam/caliph would spread and impose justice instead of the grave injustices committed by the Umayyads; many hadiths spread about a new dynasty ruling forever in glory; the Abbasids hired (and paid handsomely) agents to spread such hadiths to raise the hopes and anticipation of the masses so that they would not oppose the Abbasid revolt and armed rebellion against the Umayyads and would support the Abbasids once they ascend to power as rulers. Those agents/sheikhs of the Abbasids became the first official clergymen and obsequious fiqh scholars serving the Abbasid caliphate (e.g., the Persian man Suleiman Ibn Mahran Al-Aamash 61 – 147 A.H.); they invented so many hadiths tailored especially to satisfy the whims of the Abbasid rulers, especially hadiths/predictions ascribed forcibly to Muhammad about exalting and praising his uncle Abbas and his progeny; i.e., the Abbasids. Such hadiths are mentioned in one major chapter in the book titled (History of Caliphs) by Al-Siyouti the Sunnite historian.     

2- Thus, in light of the above, it is hardly surprising to read about the stance of the Abbasid caliph Abou Jaffer Al-Mansour against the thinker Abou Hanifa who was a denier of all hadiths. Abou Hanifa politically opposed the Umayyads and suffered persecution inflicted by them; he was thus admired very much by Shiites/Alawites. At first, he enjoyed a good stature and a certain level of popularity among the Abbasids in the first years of their caliphate; yet, the Abbasids turned against him because of his daring, independent opinions; he denounced in public all forms of injustice committed by the Abbasids; he announced his rejection of all hadiths and their narrators/Isnad; this was deemed as politically incorrect; this view posed a threat to the Abbasid plan to fabricate as many hadiths as possible to serve their political and religious purposes. Hence, Abou Jaffer Al-Mansour had him poisoned in a prison cell. This caliph is the real founder of the Abbasid caliphate as a theocracy based on hadiths authored by the official, obsequious, paid clergymen and fiqh scholars who served the Abbasids. We understand now how Abou Hanifa posed a veritable threat to the burgeoning Abbasid theocracy; the Abbasids had to silence him forever and to win to their side his two favorite disciples: Abou Youssef and Al-Shaybany; both were appointed as judges; they were corrupt men. By the way, Al-Shaybany was a disciple of Malik and wrote one of the versions of (Al-Mowata'): the book of hadiths dictated by Malik. Of course, both Abou Youssef and Al-Shaybany betrayed the school of thought of their tutor Abou Hanifa who relied on reason and logic; both corrupt men invented narratives/hadiths and fiqh views to gratify (and get paid by) the Abbasids. The Sunnite religion took its form or frame in the same era when Al-Shafei (who died in 204 A.H.) authored his book titled (Al-Um) in which he theorized for the burgeoning Sunnite religion and insisted on spreading the flagrant falsehood that hadiths (attributed forcibly to Muhammad after his death) supplant/replace and overrule the sharia laws in the Quranic verses. Al-Shafei is the first author (or the first deity of the Sunnite religion) to maintain that the Quranic term (messenger) refers to hadiths ascribed to Muhammad as if he uttered them!           

3- Despite of the above, the school of thought of Abou Hanifa (who relied on reason and logic) did not end abruptly; Al-Mu'tazala group of thinkers was among the main trend of Sunna-deniers; their trend was so strong and influential that Al-Shafei had to write about 'refuting' the views of hadiths deniers without mentioning the names of Al-Mu'tazala philosophers. This means that the trend of Sunna-deniers (whether they were among the Al-Mu'tazala or not) opposed the ways of the Abbasid caliphs who encouraged and financed the ongoing process of the fabrication and spread of hadiths. Sadly, the Abbasid caliphs managed to impose on historians not to mention the names and views of Sunna-deniers; most historians at the time were hadiths-fabricators at the same time.      

4- The fabrication of hadiths remained the basis for the Abbasid caliphate; at one time, when the caliph Harun Al-Rasheed was listening to hadiths made up by a blind narrator of hadiths about how Moses met with Adam, one of the relatives of Al-Rasheed cast doubt on such hadiths; the face of Al-Rasheed was reddened with anger and he decided to put this relative to death (by being beheaded with a sword!) for his questioning, like 'heretics' and 'infidels', a hadith of (God's 'Holy' Messenger). Yet, other trends and schools of thoughts coexisted with the dominant trend of hadiths-fabrications as long as books authored by scholars of such trends would not cast doubt or ridicule hadiths. At one time, hypocritical Al-Mu'tazala thinkers became very near courtiers to the Abbasid caliphs Al-Maamoun, Al-Motassim, and Al-Wathiq. Those hypocritical Al-Mu'tazala thinkers vented their anger against some Sunnite hadiths-fabricators; the plight and persecution of the imprisoned hadiths-author Ahmad Ibn Hanbal continued during the caliphate of Al-Motassim and Al-Wathiq; the latter put to death Ahmad Ibn Nasr Al-Khozaay the supporter of extremist Sunnite Hanbalism.       

5- The fabrication of hadiths (and the invention of the so-called hadiths-sciences) developed a great deal once the Abbasid caliph Al-Motawakil was enthroned; the vizier M. Ibn Al-Zayyat (among Al-Mu'tazala philosophers) controlled Al-Wathiq (the brother of Al-Motawakil); he urged him to remove his brother from being the crown-prince or heir to the Abbasid throne. Before Al-Wathiq would do this, he died suddenly. Months before that, Ibn Al-Zayyat persecuted, ridiculed, and annoyed Al-Motawakil while assuming he made sure he would never become caliph. Once enthroned, Al-Motawakil tortured Ibn Al-Zayyat to death as he sought revenge and as he hated the ideas of Al-Mu'tazala philosophers; this drove Al-Motawakil impose Sunna-hadiths as the official religion of the Abbasid caliphate; he sent preachers of the Sunnite religion all over the regions of the caliphate; this is praised by the Hanbali author Ibn Al-Jawzy in his history-book titled (Al-Muntazim). Al-Motawakil persecuted Al-Mu'tazala thinkers as well as Shiites, Sufis, Christians, and Jews. This caliph gave unlimited authority to extremist Sunnite Hanbali clergymen and authors; thus, the deities/imams of Sunnite religion (who authored thousands of hadiths) emerged: Al-Bokhary, Moslem, Al-Nisaa'i, Al-Tirmizy, Al-Hakim, Al-Bayhaqi, Ibn Maja,...etc.     


Fourthly: despite the above, there is a major influence by Sunna-hadiths deniers on the development of the so-called (hadith sciences):

1- Abou Hanifa ridiculed fabricators/narrators of hadiths; he asserted to his disciples that Prophet Muhammad has nothing to do with such hadiths fashioned by them; he never said any of such narratives/hadiths. This means that hadiths have nothing to do with Islam as the Divine, Celestial Religion of the Lord God. In order to face such ridicule by the popular thinker Abou Hanifa, fabricators of hadiths invented the so-called Isnad (i.e., series of narrators); this began by Malik and Al-Shafei; of course, Isnad can never be verified or authenticated as per both scientific research methodology and history; hadiths and Isnad have nothing to do with the Quran; more details about this topic are found on our book about Isnad.   

2- When hadiths-deniers undermined and cast doubt on series of narrators of hadiths, the fabricators of hadiths invented the so-called (hadith sciences); i.e., to examine narrators and their biographies to trust or to reject their narratives and to examine texts of hadiths to 'verify' and classify them. This gave the false impression that dead 'narrators' were verified as truthful persons!

3- The so-called (hadith sciences) can be refuted using the Holy Quran.

3/1: Hadiths-fabricators assumed that all companions of Muhammad are 'infallible' people who are sources of hadiths! Such a claim contradicts God's Quranic verses about liars/hypocrites around Muhammad in Yathreb:

3/1/1: "When the hypocrites come to you, they say, “We bear witness that you are God’s Messenger.” God knows that you are His Messenger, and God bears witness that the hypocrites are liars." (63:1).

3/1/2: "Then there are those who establish a mosque to cause harm, and disbelief, and disunity among the believers, and as an outpost for those who fight God and His Messenger. They will swear: “Our intentions are nothing but good.” But God bears witness that they are liars." (9:107).

3/1/3: "Have you not considered those who act hypocritically? They say to their brethren who disbelieved among the People of the Book, “If you are evicted, we will leave with you, and will not obey anyone against you; and should anyone fight you, we will certainly support you.” But God bears witness that they are liars." (59:11).

3/1/4: "They took their oaths as a screen, and prevented others from God’s Path. They will have a shameful torment. Neither their possessions nor their children will avail them anything against God. These are the inhabitants of the Fire, dwelling therein forever. On the Day when God will resurrect them altogether - they will swear to Him, as they swear to you, thinking that they are upon something. Indeed, they themselves are the liars." (58:16-18).

3/1/5: "Had the gain been immediate, and the journey shorter, they would have followed you; but the distance seemed too long for them. Still they swear by God: “Had we been able, we would have marched out with you.” They damn their own souls, and God knows that they are lying." (9:42).

3/2: Hadiths-fabricators assumed themselves to have gained God-like omniscience.

3/2/1: This is refuted by the Quranic fact that Muhammad never had a measure of omniscience about people around him: "Among the Desert-Arabs around you there are some hypocrites, and among the inhabitants of the city too. They have become adamant in hypocrisy. You do not know them, but We know them. We will torment them twice; then they will be returned to a severe torment." (9:101).

3/2/2: Omniscience pertains to the Lord God exclusively.

3/2/2/1: "...God is well aware of your faith. You are from one another..." (4:25).

3/2/2/2: "O you who believe! When believing women come to you emigrating, test them. God is Aware of their faith..." (60:10).

3/2/2/3: "He knows the deceptions of the eyes, and what the hearts conceal." (40:19).

4- The so-called (hadith sciences) can be refuted by scientific research methodology.

4/1: How come the propagators of hadiths could judge some dead/alive men as (un)truthful?! No one remains (un)truthful all the time all one's life!

4/2: Propagators of hadiths had no definite criteria and had no knowledge; their only reference/criterion is heir whims, preferences, and desires.

4/3: Propagators of hadiths differ a great deal about judging certain men/narrators as (un)truthful. There is no unanimity about any man among the narrators. We may author a book about the differences an disputes among Sunnite authors regarding this topic, if we have enough time; it is enough here to assert that in his introduction to (Al-Mowata'), p. 24, the Egyptian researcher Adel-Wahab Abdel-Latif who edited the manuscript of Al-Shaybany version of (Al-Mowata') defends Al-Shaybany against his detractors by saying that all narrators/compilers of hadiths were undermined and doubted by most people of their eras.    

5- Apart from doubting or undermining Isnad or series of narrators, deniers of hadiths (who were a minority in all eras) kept ridiculing and casting doubt on texts of some hadiths. More than eighty narrators in the hadiths-book by Al-Bokhary were undermined by hadiths-deniers and the double of that number among narrators in the hadiths-book by Moslem. This paved the way to undermine the texts of many hadiths.

6- This resulted in re-classifying hadiths, while confessing that no one of them is 100% true or verified; this means we never need them since we have the Quranic Absolute Truth. Many scholars of fiqh had to admit that no faith tenets of Islam can be taken from hadiths at all; hadiths were deemed as mere historical narratives that might be (un)true. This confession by some Sunnite fiqh scholars made deniers of Sunna-hadiths say that if hadiths match the Quran, we do not need them since we have the Quran; if hadiths contradict the Quran, we do not need anything which contradicts the Quranic verses. Yet, sadly, the voices of the few hadiths-deniers in every era were drowned by many rulers/caliphs and hundreds of supporters of Sunna-hadiths.

7- When extremist Hanbali Sunnite authors and clergymen gained unlimited power and authority, some corrupt-minded thinkers fought against Sunna-hadiths using the same weapon: i.e., inventing more hadiths! They deliberately fashioned and fabricated hadiths which refute views expressed in the Hanbali hadiths! Thus, hadiths which praise, deify, and sanctify companions of Muhammad are contradicted by hadiths making them as Hell-dwellers because they engaged into civil wars and civilian strife. Another silly hadith is one about Muhammad purportedly stopping his contemporaries from writing down his words as he commanded them to write down only the Quranic verses. Sunnite Hanbali authors of hadiths had to invent hadiths about Muhammad supposedly allowing certain men/narrators to write his hadiths! Yet, if hundreds of hadiths were orally spread during the Umayyad Era, what are the sources of millions of hadiths spread in books of the Second Abbasid Era after the death of Al-Motawakil?! The source is devilish revelations of Satan inspired to human devils (see 6:112-114).

8- Of course, the undercurrent of the intellectual endeavors of Sunna-deniers made supporters of Sunna-hadiths 'refute' stances/views of those who cast doubt on hadiths by inventing more hadiths to indirectly insult and rebuke hadiths-deniers. Let us exemplify this in the points below.

8/1: (Abou Hurayrah said that the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said that in the future decades, people will believe in words of deceitful liars and reject words of the truthful, honest men because of the emergence of (Al-Rowaybida). When men around the Holy Prophet asked him what (Al-Rowaybida) means, he said they are trivial men talking about important topics of their societies...This hadith is narrated by Ibn Hanbal and Ibn Maja, among others.).

8/2: (There will be those who act like a man sitting on a sofa narrating my hadiths and denying them by asserting that ''Allah's Book is between us and hadiths; we follow only the commands and prohibitions of Allah's Book''; they forget that Allah's Messenger prohibits things prohibited by Allah in His Book!" this hadith is narrated by Al-Tirmizy.).


Fifthly: many fabricators of hadiths themselves denied other hadiths written by others:

1- Hadiths have increased exponentially with the passage of time; (Al-Mowata'), the first book of hadiths by Malik, has but 1008 hadiths only (in the version written by Al-Shaybany) in the 2nd century A.H. Less than 10000 hadiths exist in (Al-Um) by Al-Shafei (who died in 204 A.H.) which is the second book of hadiths. There were hundreds of thousands of hadiths during the era of Al-Bokhary (who died in 256 A.H.). There were millions of hadiths in the 6th century A.H. during the era of Ibn Al-Jawzy (who died in 597 A.H.). this millions tripled in the 8th century A.H. during the era of Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Al-Qayyim. Let us bear in mind that Sunnite Sufis had their own millions of hadiths.

2- This drove some Sunnite fiqh authors (e.g., Ibn Al-Jawzy, Ibn Taymiyya, Ibn Al-Qayyim, and Al-Siyouti [who died in 911 A.H.]) to write about false hadiths and their fabricators. In our modern era, the Sunnite writer Al-Albany (1914 - 1999 A.D.) wrote in the same vein about rejecting false hadiths; he made himself a judge on authors and narrators who died centuries before he was born instead of judging the texts of hadiths!  

3- Thus, as hadiths increased like cancerous cells and beyond any limits, many silly, trivial, and laughter-inducing ones emerged; the Sunnite authors had to cast doubt on the narrators and on the texts of such hadiths. Ibn Al-Qayyim did that; he asserted that Muhammad never predicted/knew the future and never had a measure of knowledge about the metaphysical realm of the past and of Barsakh. Had Ibn Al-Qayyim continued this line of thought, he would have negated and refuted about one-third of millions of Sunnite hadiths, especially the ones about predicting names of some people who will enter into Hell or Paradise, about describing Hell and Paradise as well as the Last Day and the Hereafter, about the Hour, and about the so-called intercession. 


Sixthly: examples of hadiths rejected and denied by Ibn Al-Qayyim in his book titled (Al-Manar Al-Maneef):

 Ibn Al-Qayyim asserts that false hadiths never uttered by Muhammad include the ill-phrased, ludicrous ones; e.g., this one: (if a bowl of rice were a man, he would be a meek one as it feeds the hungry.); Ibn Al-Qayyim comments on this hadith by saying that it is so ridiculous that it cannot be said by reasonable men, let alone Muhammad the Seal of Prophets.

 Ibn Al-Qayyim refutes the following series of ludicrous hadiths especially the ones which resemble prescription of medical doctors, another sign of false hadiths as per the criteria of Ibn Al-Qayyim.

(Eat walnuts to heal the stomach-ache but do not eat cheese; if cheese causes stomach-ache, eat walnuts.)

(If people knew the real value of fenugreek, they would have bought ounces of it with gold.

(Leaves ofchicory have dew-drops of Paradise on them.)

(Eat watercress by night and never by night; heal your skins with it.)

(The perfumes and creams of violet leaves is better than the rest of other perfumes and creams, like a man preferring his household members more than other people on earth.)

(Shallots are the best food on earth; it is like wheat preferred over all plants.

(Hearts feel happy when red meat is eaten.

(Pomegranates are like pearls of Paradise as this fruit came from there.)

(The spring of my Umma is found in grapes and watermelons.

(Good health is maintained by eating bread and grapes all the time.

(Salt provides cure for seventy ailments.

(Eating beans is panacea of all diseases.

(Do not insult roosters; if sons of Adam knew the real value of the voice, meat, and feathers of roosters, they would have bought roosters with gold.

(Those who rear white roosters in their house will never be harmed by sorcery and devils.)

(God has a rooster whose neck is beneath the Throne and whose legs are at the borders of the heavens.)

(Eating the harissa sauce heals back-aches.)

(Eating fish brings fatigue to the human body.

(A man complained to the Prophet that his progeny are not as many as he liked; he advised the man to eat more eggs and onions.)   

(Gabriel brought me harissa from Paradise; when I ate it, it made me have the sexual prowess of 40 men combined!)

(Believers are sweet and they love to eat desserts.)

(Eating dried dates before breakfast kills worms inside the human body.)

(Make your women eat dried dates after they give birth.)

(Those who serve desserts to others will never taste bitterness in their life situations.)

(Puffing air from your mouth at food plates removes benediction from them.)

(God will pardon those who clean food morsels, soiled with feces or urine, and eat them.)


Lastly: we urge readers to have a good laugh by reading this Wahabi fatwa:

 This question was posed in a Salafist website; it is about the 'misguided' sect of Quranists: (... There is that group of people who write articles online and call themselves as "Quranists"; they insist on following no other book except the Quran as the only source of Islam; what is your view of their stance? ...). The reply/fatwa which was written under this question is as follows: (... Glorified and praised be our Lord Allah; some people in our era began the controversy of denying Sunna hadiths and asserting that hadiths must never be the source of Islamic legislation; those people call themselves as ''Quranists'' and made the Quran as their only source of guidance and religious legislations. Those misguided people maintain the view that the Quran is enough with its commands and prohibitions; they assume that Sunna hadiths are filled with lies; i.e., invented and made up things never said by Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah descend upon him). For sure, those who call themselves as "Quranists" are the revival of a trend of misguided people whose emergence was predicted by Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah descend upon him). Ibn Hanbal, Abou Dawood, and Al-Hakim in their books of authenticated and verified hadiths with asserted, true Isnad or series of narrators mention the hadith by the trusted narrator Al-Miqdam that our Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah descend upon him) said that "There will be those who act like a man sitting on a sofa narrating my hadiths and denying them by asserting that ''Allah's Book is between us and hadiths; we follow only the commands and prohibitions of Allah's Book''; they forget that Allah's Messenger prohibits things prohibited by Allah in His Book!" [from the book of hadiths titled "Al-Fath Al-Kabeer", vol. III, p.438, narrated by Al-Tirmizy, in a slightly different version, while asserting that it is a true hadith; see Sunna-hadiths of Al-Tirmizy annotated by Ibn Araby, vol. X, p. 132.]).

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