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Quranic Terminology: The Root (k/b/r) and Its Derivations

Quranic Terminology: The Root (k/b/r) and Its Derivations




Published in May 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, & 18, 2020

Translated by: Ahmed Fathy








 Since we have written about the topic of the big criminals mentioned in the following verses: "And thus We set up in every city its big criminals, to scheme in it, but they scheme only against their own souls, and they do not realize it. When a verse comes to them, they say, “We will not believe unless we are given the like of what was given to God’s messengers.” God knows best where to place His message. Humiliation from God and severe torment will afflict the criminals for their scheming." (6:123-124), we should also write about the root (k/b/r) and its derivations which signify several meanings: bigness, hugeness, superiority, arrogance, haughtiness, snobbery, and old age.


Firstly: among the Holy Names of the Lord God is (Al-Motakabir) or the Superior:

1- This Holy Name of the Lord God is mentioned once in the entire Quranic text: " He is God. There is no God but He, the Knower of secrets and declarations. He is the Dominant, the Compassionate. He is God; besides Whom there is no god; the Sovereign, the Holy, the Peace-Giver, the Faith-Giver, the Overseer, the Almighty, the Omnipotent, the Superior/ Al-Motakabir. Glory be to God, beyond what they associate. He is God; the Creator, the Maker, the Designer. His are the Most Beautiful Names. Whatever is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him. He is the Majestic, the Wise." (50:22-24).

2- Of course, we will detail the arrogance/superiority of the followers of Iblis/Satan since they challenged and defied the Lord God the Only Superior Being.

3- The known example of such arrogant followers of Satan who deified themselves and claimed being superior is Moses' Pharaoh: "Pharaoh said, “Leave me to kill Moses, and let him appeal to his Lord. I fear he may change your religion, or spread corruption in the land.” Moses said, “I have sought the protection of my Lord and your Lord, from every arrogant tyrant/ Motakabir who does not believe in the Day of Judgment.”" (40:26-27); "Those who argue against God’s Verses, without any proof having come to them - Kabur/commit a heinous sin in the sight of God, and of those who believe. Thus God seals the heart of every proud tyrant/ Motakabir. And Pharaoh said..." (40:35-36).

3/1: This is why Moses' Pharaoh occupied a lowest level among sinners; his body remains after his death as a warning to others so as not to imitate him or follow his footsteps; thus, the self-deified big criminal became a seen corpse: "Today We will preserve your body, so that you become a sign for those after you. But most people are heedless of Our signs." (10:92).

3/2: As for the soul of Moses' Pharaoh, it experiences a type of Barsakh torment until the end of days when he and his evil people will enter into a severer torment inside Hell on the Last Day: "...a terrible torment besieged Pharaoh’s people. The Fire. They will be exposed to it morning and evening. And on the Day the Hour takes place: “Admit the people of Pharaoh to the most intense torment.”" (40:45-46).

3/3: On the Resurrection Day, Moses' Pharaoh will be the imam/leader of his people while they are entering into Hell: "And We sent Moses with Our signs and a clear authority.To Pharaoh and his retinue members, but they followed the command of Pharaoh, and the command of Pharaoh was not wise.He will precede his people on the Day of Resurrection, and will lead them into the Fire. Miserable is the place he placed them in." (11:96-98). They are cursed by the Lord God: "They were followed by a curse in this, and on the Day of Resurrection. Miserable is the path they followed." (11:99).

3/4: In the Quran, Moses' Pharaoh and his people are described as the Salaf (precedent/example/ancestors/ or imams/leaders) whose footsteps are followed by arrogant sinners and big criminals in later eras: "Thus We made them a Salaf/precedent and an example for the others." (43:56); "And We made them leaders/imams calling to the Fire. And on Resurrection Day, they will not be saved." (28:41).

4- Of course, all unrepentant arrogant sinners (or Al-Motakabereen in the Quranic/Arabic tongue) who claimed being superior will hear this upon dying and upon entering through the gates of Hell: "Enter the gates of Hell, to dwell therein forever. Miserable is the residence of the arrogant ones/Al-Motakabereen." (16:29); "It will be said, “Enter the gates of Hell, to abide therein eternally.” How wretched is the destination of the arrogant ones/Al-Motakabereen." (39:72); "Enter the gates of Hell, to remain therein forever. What a terrible dwelling for the arrogant/Al-Motakabereen." (40:76).

5- Of course, the big criminals who are all the imams/clergymen/sheikhs of the Muhammadans have their share of underserved arrogance and claims of superiority; they have undermined and defied the Holy Names of Allah; they have ascribed lies/hadiths to Allah and to Muhammad which are the bases of their terrestrial/earthly religions of Satan; their faces will be blackened on the Last Day: "On the Day of Resurrection, you will see those who told lies about God with their faces blackened. Is there not a place in Hell for Al-Motakabereen/the arrogant ones?" (39:60); "To God belong the Most Beautiful Names, so call Him by them, and disregard those who blaspheme His names. They will be repaid for what they used to do." (7:180).

The Lord God's Holy Name (Al-Kabeer) or the Magnificent/Grand/Great:

1- Of course, the Quranic term (Kabeer) or ''big'' without the definitive article (Al-) or ''the'' qualifies some things, and this will be mentioned later, while the term (Al-Kabeer) or the Magnificent is one of the Holy Names/Epithets of the Lord God in the Holy Quran and it is usually linked to two other Holy Names of the Lord God: the Most-High/Sublime and the Superior/Supreme. This means that the Lord God is the Only Supreme Being Who deserves superiority, majesty, grandness, exaltedness, and magnificence. The Lord God says the following in the Holy Quran: "The Knower of the Invisible and the Visible; the Grand/Al-Kabeer, the Supreme." (13:9); "...God is Sublime, Great/Al-Kabeer." (4:34); "That is because God is the Reality, and what they invoke besides Him is vanity, and because God is the Sublime, the Grand/Al-Kabeer." (22:62); "That is because God is the Truth, and what they worship besides Him is falsehood, and because God is the Exalted, the Magnificent/Al-Kabeer." (31:30); "...“What did your Lord say?” They will say, “The truth, and He is the High, the Great/Al-Kabeer.”" (34:23); "... Judgment rests with God the Sublime, the Majestic/Al-Kabeer." (40:12).

2- The arrogant enemies of the Lord God try to seek superiority and self-deification as the challenge and defy the Lord God. This applies to Iblis/Satan; when he disobeyed Allah, He has told him the following: "He said, “O Iblis, what prevented you from prostrating before what I created with My Own hands? Are you too proud/Estakbart, or were you one of the superior?”" (38:75).

3- Following the footsteps of the self-deified, arrogant Satan is the arrogant, self-deified Moses' Pharaoh who claimed being superior/exalted; we read the following about him and about his people: "Then We sent Moses and his brother Aaron, with Our signs and a clear authority. To Pharaoh and his retinue members, but they turned arrogant/Estabaro. They were superiority-seeking people." (23:45-46); "And We delivered the Israelites from the humiliating persecution. From Pharaoh. He was a transgressing superior tyrant." (44:30-31); "Pharaoh exalted himself on earth and divided its people into factions. He persecuted a group of them, slaughtering their sons, while sparing their daughters. He was truly a corrupter." (28:4).

4- Following the footsteps of the arrogant, self-deified Moses' Pharaoh are all the big criminals who are the enthroned tyrants.

5- This is in contrast to the pious, Paradise-seeking monotheists who seek no superiority on earth: "That Home of the Hereafter - We assign it for those who seek no superiority on earth, nor corruption. And the outcome is for the pious ones." (28:83). This Quranic verse 28:83 is, of course, the decisive word against the terrorist MB organization members and other theocracy-seeking Wahabis who are corrupt, arrogant persons who insist on committing the grave sin of mixing religion with politics.

6- The Lord God described Himself here: "To Him belongs all superiority/Kibriyaa in the heavens and the earth. He is the Majestic, the Wise." (45:37).

Kabeer in the sense of big/great to describe things; e.g., the deeds of the Lord God:

  The Lord God is the Owner of Great Bounty bestowed on Muhammad and also on all pious monotheists on the Last Day: "Except through a mercy from your Lord. His favors upon you have been great/Kabeer." (17:87); "And give the believers the good news that for them is a great/Kabeer reward." (33:47); "...Some of them wrong their souls, and some follow a middle course, and some are in the foremost in good deeds by God’s leave; that is the great/Kabeer blessing." (35:32); "...As for those who believe and do good deeds, they will be in the Meadows of the Gardens; they will have whatever they please in the presence of their Lord; that is the supreme/Kabeer blessing." (42:22). The Lord God will grant them large/great reward/triumph on the Last Day: "Except those who are patient and do good deeds - these will have forgiveness and a great/Kabeer reward." (11:11); "This Quran guides to what is most upright; and it gives good news to the believers who do good deeds, that they will have a great/Kabeer reward." (17:9); "Except those who are patient and do good deeds - these will have forgiveness and a great/Kabeer reward." (16:41); "...those who believe and do righteous deeds will have forgiveness and a great/Kabeer reward." (35:7); "...spend from what He made you inherit. Those among you who believe and give will have a great/Kabeer reward." (57:7); "As for those who fear their Lord in secret - for them is forgiveness and a great/Kabeer reward." (67:12); "Those who believe and do righteous deeds will have Gardens beneath which rivers flow. That is the great/Kabeer triumph." (85:11). This is about their reward in Paradise forever: "Wherever you look, you see bliss, and a vast/Kabeer kingdom." (76:20).


Secondly: the phrase (Allahu Akbar!) or (God is the Greatest!) pronounced within acts of worship:

1- This is addressed to Muhammad (and consequently all pious monotheists) about uttering (Allahu Akbar) within acts of worship like prayers, remembrance, and supplications:  "And glorify/Kabber your Lord." (74:3); "...And be neither loud in your prayer, nor silent in it, but follow a course in between. And say, “Praise be to God, who has not begotten a son, nor has He a partner in sovereignty, nor has He an ally out of weakness, and glorify/Kabber Him constantly/Takbeera.”" (17:110-111).

2- This is about the slaughtering of sacrificial animals (while saying "Allah is the Greatest!") as part of pilgrimage rituals: "Neither their flesh, nor their blood, ever reaches God. What reaches Him is the righteousness from you. Thus He subdued them to you, that you may glorify/Tokabero God for guiding you. And give good news to the charitable ones." (22:37).   

3- This is about fasting and (Allahu Akbar): "Ramadan is the month in which the Quran was revealed. Guidance for humanity...Whoever of you witnesses the month, shall fast it...and glorify/Tokabero God for having guided you, so that you may be thankful." (2:185).  

4- Saying (Allahu Akbar) within prayers aims to attain piety and achieve reverence by acknowledging the fact that the Lord God is the Greatest above all things in the universe; i.e., this means we should never think of anything/anyone but Allah while praying.

5- Without this reverence/piety drawn from pronouncing (Allahu Akbar), human beings never esteem their Lord God as He should be esteemed. This sin is committed by polytheists who deify mortals and things/tombs. This is addressed directly to polytheists/disbelievers: "O people! A parable is presented, so listen to it: Those you invoke besides God will never create a fly, even if they banded together for that purpose. And if the fly steals anything from them, they cannot recover it from it. Weak are the pursuer and the pursued. They do not value God as He should be valued. God is Strong and Powerful." (22:73-74). The imaginary and entombed deities/allies/saints of the Muhammadans cannot create a fly and cannot retrieve a piece of sugar that a fly has sucked into its tiny body since anything flies suck is turned into its simple elements. Human beings cannot beat a tiny insect let alone the Coronavirus; this means that mortal, entombed deities who are dead cannot do anything either; their worshipers never esteem their Lord God as He should be esteemed. This is the case in this transient world; in contrast, on the Last Day in the Hereafter, the Grandeur and Omnipotence of the Dominant, Superior, Supreme, Most-High Lord God will be witnessed by all resurrected human souls; they will regret never esteeming/valuing Him as He should be esteemed/valued: "They have not esteemed God as He ought to be esteemed. The entire earth will be in His grip on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens will be folded in His right. Exalted and High is He, and He is beyond the polytheistic associations they make. And the Trumpet will be sounded, whereupon everyone in the heavens and the earth will be stunned, except whomever God wills. Then it will be sounded another time, whereupon they will rise up, looking on. And the earth will shine with the Light of its Lord; and the Book will be put in place; and the prophets and the witnesses will be brought in; and Judgment will be passed among them equitably, and they will not be wronged. And every soul will be fully compensated for what it had done. He is well aware of what they do." (39:67-70).

6- As for how the phrase (Allahu Akbar) is employed by the polytheistic Muhammadans, we note the following points.

6/1: Most of them utter it (within or outside prayers or acts of worship) heedlessly without pondering the Superiority, Magnificence, Majesty, and Grandeur of the Lord God within their hearts/souls.

6/2: Some Muhammadans are terrorists (like the Wahabi ISIS terrorists) who are soldiers/troops of Satan who shout the phrase (Allahu Akbar) while committing grave sins such as massacring the innocent ones within indiscriminate killing, terrorist (suicide) operations, looting, raping, enslaving, sabotaging...etc. since they imitate the evil aggressors who are the Arabs who committed the grave sins within the Arab conquests; may the Lord curse both Arab conquerors of the past and Wahabi terrorists of today!







Thirdly: the adjective "big" (i.e., Kabeer/ Kabeera) when employed to describe things in the Quranic text:

1- This is about peaceful jihad/striving by preaching the Quranic Message: "So do not obey the disbelievers, but strive against them with it, a big/Kabeera striving." (25:52).

2- This is about describing major sins as big/grave/serious/enormous:

2/1: "And give orphans their properties...And do not consume their properties by combining them with yours, for that would be a serious/Kabeera sin." (4:2).

2/2: "And We conveyed to the Israelites in the Book: You will commit evil on earth twice, and you will rise to a great/Kabeera height." (17:4).

2/3: "And do not kill your children for fear of poverty. We provide for them, and for you. Killing them is a grave/Kabeera sin." (17:31).

2/4: "We said to you that your Lord encompasses humanity...We frighten them, but that only increases their grave/Kabeera transgression." (17:60).

2/5: "...Unless you do this, there will be disruption on earth and much/Kabeer corruption." (8:73).

2/6: "They will say, “Yes, a warner did come to us, but we disbelieved, and said, ‘God did not send down anything; you are indeed entrapped in a big/Kabeer misguidance.’”" (67:9).

Within the description of torment and being cursed:

1- "Lord, give them double the punishment, and curse them with a great/Kabeera curse.”" (33:68).

2- "...But if you turn away, then I fear for you the torment of a grievous/Kabeer Day.”" (11:3).

3- ".... Whoever among you commits injustice, We will make him taste a grievous/Kabeera torment." (25:19).


Fourthly: derivations from the root (k/b/r) to show magnitude, greatness, bigness, enormity, and seriousness:

 Such words/derivations, of course, have nothing to do with grammatical and morphological rules of the Arabic tongue set by the grammarians of the Abbasid Era.

1- The Quranic term (Kaba'ir) means grave sins: "And those who avoid major sins/Kaba'ir and indecencies; and if they become angry, they forgive." (42:37); "Those who avoid gross sins/Kaba'ir and indecencies - except for minor lapses..." (53:32); "If you avoid the worst sins/Kaba'ir of what you are forbidden, We will remit your sins, and admit you by a Gate of Honor." (4:31).

2- The Quranic term (Kubra) means supreme/paramount/great: "That We may show you some of Our great/Kubra signs." (20:23); "He saw some of the Great/Kubra Signs of his Lord." (53:18); "He showed him the Great/Kubra Miracle." (79:20); "But when the Great/Kubra Cataclysm arrives." (79:34); "He who will enter the Gigantic/Kubra Fire." (87:12); "The Day when We launch the Great/Kubra Assault - We will avenge." (44:16).

3- The Quranic verb (Kabur) means to be big/enormous/grave/serious (e.g., about sins): "It is most/Kabur hateful to God that you say what you do not do." (61:3); "Or some creation, which, in your minds, is even bigger/Yakbur.”..." (17:51); "If you find their rejection hard to bear/Kabur, then if you can, seek a tunnel into the earth, or a stairway into the heaven, and bring them a sign. Had God willed, He could have gathered them to guidance. So do not be of the ignorant ones." (6:35); "And relate to them the story of Noah, when he said to his people, “O my people, if my presence among you and my reminding you of God’s signs is too much/Kabur for you, then in God I have put my trust..." (10:71); "They have no knowledge of this, nor did their forefathers. Grave/Kaburat is the word that comes out of their mouths. They say nothing but a lie." (18:5); "Those who argue against God’s revelations, without any proof having come to them Kabur/commit a heinous sin in the sight of God..." (40:35); "He prescribed for you the same religion He enjoined upon Noah, and what We inspired to you, and what We enjoined upon Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus: “You shall uphold the religion, and be not divided therein.” As for the polytheists, what you call them to Kabur/is outrageous to them..." (42:13).

4- The Quranic plural term (Kubar) also refers to great items: "It is one of the greatest/Kubar things." (74:35).

5- The Quranic term (Kubbara) means enormous/grave/outrageous/big; it is mentioned once in the Quranic text here about the disbelievers among the people of Noah: " And they schemed outrageous/Kubbara schemes." (71:22).

Fifthly: within comparatives and superlatives:

 In the English tongue there are regular and irregular comparatives and superlatives: (great, greater than, the greatest) & (good, better, the best). In contrast, in the Quranic/Arabic tongue, comparatives are sometimes employed to indicate superlatives and sometimes they are normally used as literal comparatives; the context of the Quranic verses indicates each case; let us exemplify this within the comparative and superlative of the Quranic adjective big/large/great:

1- "And the book will be placed, and you will see the sinners fearful of its contents. And they will say, “Woe to us! What is with this book that leaves nothing, small or big/Kabeera, but it has enumerated it?..." (18:49); "Nor do they spend any expenditure, small or large/Kabeera, nor do they cross any valley, but it is recorded to their credit. ..." (9:121); "Everything, small or large/Kabeer, is written down." (54:53); "...And do not think it too trivial to write down, whether small or large/Kabeera, including the time of repayment...." (2:282); "... Not even the weight of an atom, on earth or in the sky, escapes your Lord, nor is there anything smaller or larger/Akbar, but is in a clear record." (10:61); "...Not an atom's weight in the heavens and the earth, or anything smaller or larger/Akbar, escapes His knowledge..." (34:3).

2- We note the following comparatives between two items: a large/big item and a bigger/larger one: "They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, “There is gross sin in them, and some benefits for people, but their sinfulness outweighs/Akbar their benefit..." (2:219); "The People of the Book challenge you to bring down to them a book from the sky. They had asked Moses for something even greater/Akbar. They said, “Show us God plainly.”..." (4:153); "Those who disbelieved will be addressed, “The loathing of God is greater/Akbar than your loathing of yourselves..." (40:10); "Certainly the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater/Akbar than the creation of humanity, but most people do not know." (40:57); "Each sign We showed them was bigger/Akbar than its counterpart..." (43:48); "They ask you about fighting during the Sacred Month. Say, “Fighting during it is deplorable/Kabeer; but to bar others from God’s Path, and to disbelieve in Him, and to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and to expel its people from it, are more/Akbar deplorable with God..." (2:217); "We will make them taste the lesser torment, prior to the greater/Akbar torment, so that they may return." (32:21); "...but what their hearts conceal is bigger/Akbar...." (3:118); "Such is the torment; but the torment of the Hereafter is greater/Akbar, if they only knew." (68:33); "God made them taste disgrace in the present life, but the torment of the Hereafter is greater/Akbar, if they only knew." (39:26); "...But approval from God is even greater/Akbar. That is the supreme achievement." (9:72); "...but the reward of the Hereafter is greater/Akbar, if they only knew." (16:41); "...yet the Hereafter is greater/Akbar in ranks..." (17:21); "Then, when he saw the sun rising, he said, “This is my lord, this is bigger/Akbar.” But when it set, he said, “O my people, I am innocent of your polytheism." (6:78); "...And the remembrance of God is greater/Akbar. And God knows what you do." (29:45).

3- Implicit comparatives: "...As for him who played the Kebaraho/major role - for him is a terrible torment." (24:11); "...they Akbarnaho/marveled at him..." (12:31); "And seek help through patience and prayer. But it is difficult/Kabeera, except for the devout." (2:45); "...It is indeed difficult/Kabeera, except for those whom God has guided..." (2:143); "...He must be your chief/Kabeer, who has taught you magic..." (20:71); "He said, “But it was this biggest/Kabeer of them that did it. Ask them, if they can speak.”" (21:63); "So he reduced them into pieces, except for their biggest/Kabeer, that they may return to it." (21:58); "And thus We set up in every city its Akaber/big criminals, to conspire in it, but they conspire only against their souls, and they do not realize it." (6:123); so there are criminals and there are the big criminals who are a higher-rank sinners.

4- The Quranic adjective (Al-Akbar) or "the greatest" with (Al-) which is the Arabic definitive article "the": "God will torment him with the greatest/Al-Akbar torment." (88:24); "The Al-Akbar/Greatest Fear will not worry them, and the angels will receive them: “This is your Day which you were promised.”" (21:103); "And a proclamation from God and His Messenger to the people on the day of the Al-Akbar/Greater Pilgrimage..." (9:3).   







Sixthly: two Quranic terms: Estekbar (i.e., pride/arrogance) and Ghoroor (deception):

 The two Quranic terms differ in meaning though both in modern Arabic are synonymous. Let us exemplify this.

1- Satan deceived Adam and his wife: "So he lured them with deceit/ Ghoroor..." (7:22).

2- Satan is bent to deceive the progeny of Adam especially by false promises of intercessions: "...But Satan promises them nothing but deceit/Ghoroor." (17:64); "He promises them, and he raises their expectations, but Satan promises them nothing but deceit/Ghoroor." (4:120).

3- This is why Satan is the Deceiver/Tempter (or Gharoor in the Quranic tongue): "...The promise of God is true. Therefore, do not let this life deceive you, nor let the Deceiver/Gharoor deceive you regarding God." (31:33); "O people! The promise of God is true; so let not the lowly life seduce you, and let not the Tempter/Gharoor tempt you away from God." (35:5).

4- Of course, Satan deceives human beings by his troops/soldiers who are the enemies of prophets/messengers; i.e., imams/clergymen of terrestrial religions who fabricate/invent false hadiths and narratives to deceive the masses; e.g., hadiths about intercession. "Likewise, We have assigned for every prophet an enemy - human and jinn devils - inspiring one another with fancy words in order to introduce deception/Ghoroor. But had your Lord willed, they would not have done it. So leave them to their fabrications." (6:112).

5- Monotheists should avoid being deceived by this lowly, transient life: "Every soul will have a taste of death, and you will receive your recompense on the Day of Resurrection. Whoever is swayed from the Fire, and admitted to Paradise, has won. The life of this world is merely enjoyment of deception/Ghoroor." (3:185).

6- The hypocrites among companions/contemporaries of Muhammad in Yathreb have accused the Lord God of deceiving them with false promises in the Quran: "When the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is sickness said, “God and His Messenger promised us nothing but deception/Ghoroor.”" (33:12).

 As for (Estekbar), it is to reject/refuse the Quranic commands of the lord God out of arrogance and pride.

The basis of pride/arrogance or Estkbar/Takabur:

1- This basis has been established when Iblis haughtily refused to obey the divine command to prostrate to Adam.

2- Iblis was among the arch-angels of the Upper Realm (see 38:69-85), but he concealed his pride/arrogance from other angels; this is never concealed from the Omniscient Lord God; hence, the test was to command all angels to prostrate to Adam though he was created of mud/clay and they were created of fire-like energy; the believing angels readily obeyed the divine command without questioning it; the only rebel angel who was too proud to obey this divine command was Iblis who also 'justified' his arrogance by saying he (created of fire-like energy) is better than the human creature made of clay; Iblis became Satan the Devil and was cursed for his disobedience and thrown into lowest Barsakh of the earth.

2/1: Those who are proud/arrogant and disobey the commands of the Dominant Lord God are disbelievers: "And We said to the angels, “Prostrate to Adam.” They prostrated, except for Satan. He refused, was arrogant/Estakbar, and became one of the disbelievers." (2:34).

2/2: Iblis adhered to pride/arrogance/haughtiness and false sense of superiority; he deified himself as if he were a peer or an equal to the Lord God: "So the angels prostrated, all of them. Except for Iblis. He was too proud/Estakbar, and one of the disbelievers. He said, “O Iblis, what prevented you from prostrating before what I created with My Own hands? Are you too proud/Estakbart, or were you one of the superior?” He said, “I am better than he; You created me from fire, and You created him from clay.”" (38:73-76). 

2/3: This meaning of sensing false superiority is repeated here: "When We said to the angels, “Prostrate to Adam,” they bowed down, except for Iblis. He said, “Shall I bow down before someone You created from mud?”" (17:61); "He said, “What prevented you from prostrating when I have commanded you?” He said, “I am better than he; You created me from fire, and You created him from mud.”" (7:12); "So the angels prostrated, all together. Except for Iblis. He refused to be among those who prostrated. He said, “O Iblis, what kept you from being among those who prostrated?” He said, “I am not about to prostrate to a human being, whom You created from clay, from molded mud.”" (15:30-33).

3- Of course, Iblis was transformed into Satan the Devil; he was punished by expulsion and being cursed as an outcast; his fate in the Hereafter is Hell for eternity along with his soldiers/troops and followers: "He said, “Then get out of here, for you are an outcast”. “And the curse will be upon you until the Day of Judgment.”" (15:34-35); "Then they will be toppled into it, together with the tempters. And the soldiers of Satan, all of them." (26:94-95); "He said, “Get down from it! It is not for you to act arrogantly in it. Get out! You are one of the lowly!”" (7:13).      

4- The rest of the angels are believers who obey the commands of their Lord God; they are never proud/arrogant: "To Him belongs everyone in the heavens and the earth. Those near Him are not too proud/Yastakberoon to worship Him, nor do they waver." (21:19); "To God bows down everything in the heavens and everything on earth - every living creature, and the angels, and without being proud/Yastakberoon." (16:49); "Those who are in the presence of your Lord are not too proud/Yastakberoon to worship Him. They recite His praises, and to Him they prostrate." (7:206).

Between angels and human beings regarding the topic of arrogance/pride/Estekbar:

1- Of course, angels receive commands of the Lord God directly, in contrast, human beings receive them indirectly; i.e., from the Divine Books or Celestial Scriptures granted by the Lord God through Gabriel to prophets/messengers chosen by the Lord God.

2- Hence, all human beings in all eras until the advent of the Hour are divided into two types in the Quran: a majority, the allies of Satan, and a minority: the allies of Allah. Of course, the allies of Satan are proud/arrogant since they disobey the Dominant Lord God and disbelieve in the Divine Book while they believe in devilish revelations. In contrast, the allies of Allah are pious monotheists who obey the commands of their Lord God found in the Celestial Scriptures and they believe in the Divine Book only with nothing else besides it; they are never proud/arrogant/haughty and they claim no superiority at all. In the following points, we examine how the Quran mentions such monotheistic allies of Allah who are never proud/arrogant.

2/1: They prostrate when reminded with Quranic verses; this means they are never proud/arrogant like disbelievers: "They believe in Our Verses, those who, when reminded of them, fall down prostrate, and glorify their Lord with praise, and are not proud/Yastekberoon." (32:15).

2/2: Some of those monotheists belong to the Christians among the People of the Book in Arabia who believed in the Quran: "...And you will find that the nearest in affection towards the believers are those who say, “We are Christians.” That is because among them are priests and monks, and they are not arrogant/Yastekberoon. And when they hear what was revealed to the messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with tears, as they recognize the Truth in it. They say, “Our Lord, we have believed, so count us among the witnesses.”...God will reward them for what they say - Gardens beneath which rivers flow, where they will stay forever. Such is the reward of the righteous." (5:82-85).

2/3: Within the Covenant made with the Israelites in Sinai during the Exodus, Mount Al-Tur was made to suspend over their heads and they were frightened lest it might fall on their heads: "And when We suspended the mountain over them, as if it was an umbrella, and they thought it would fall on them: “Hold fast to what We have given you, and remember what it contains, so that you may be saved.”" (7:171). Within the Covenant, they were told about the prophet/messenger of the Gentiles, Muhammad, and the Quranic Light which will descend and be conveyed by him: "And Moses chose from his people seventy men for Our appointment. When the tremor shook them...He said, “My torment - I inflict it upon whomever I will, but My mercy encompasses all things...Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet of the Gentiles, whom they find mentioned in the Torah and the Gospel in their possession...Those who believe with him, and respect him, and support him, and follow the Light that came down with him - these are the successful. Say, “O people, I am the Messenger of God to you all - He to whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. There is no God but He. He gives life and causes death.” So believe in God and His Messenger, the Prophet of the Gentiles, who believes in God and His words. And follow him, that you may be guided. Among the people of Moses is a community that guides by truth, and thereby upholds justice." (7:155-159). The monotheistic believers among the descendants of the Israelites in Arabia, during Muhammad's lifetime, heard the Quran and prostrated as they remembered the Covenant made with their ancestors which included the prediction about Muhammad and the Quran. This is addressed to the Arabian people who disbelieved in the Quran: "Say, “Believe in it, or do not believe.” Those who were given knowledge before it, when it is read to them, they fall to their chins, prostrating. And they say, “Glory to our Lord. The promise of our Lord is fulfilled.”" (17:107-109). The idea of monotheists never adhering to pride/arrogance is not mentioned here explicitly, but it is alluded to within a descriptive image of the movement of prostration.    

2/4: Those who arrogantly refuse to obey the Lord God within humbleness, reverence, and piety will end up in Hell: " The Messiah does not disdain to be a servant of God, nor do the favored angels. Whoever disdains His worship, and is too arrogant/Yastakber - He will round them up to Himself altogether. But as for those who believe and do good works, He will pay them their wages in full, and will increase His grace for them. But as for those who disdain and are too proud/Estakbaro, He will torment them with an agonizing torment. And they will find for themselves, apart from God, no ally and no savior." (4:172-173).

Types of arrogant/proud disbelievers within the Quranic stories of the ancient nations:

1- Noah said the following about his people: "Whenever I called them to Your forgiveness, they thrust their fingers into their ears, and wrapped themselves in their garments, and insisted, and became more and more arrogant/Estakbaro Estakbara." (71:7). The disbelievers of Qorayish imitated the stance of the disbelievers among the people of Noah: "They wrap their chests to hide from Him. But even as they cover themselves with their clothes, He knows what they conceal and what they reveal. He knows what lies within the hearts." (11:5). The disbelievers among the people of Noah continued for 950 years to beget disbelievers and sinners; they were frank and never hid their stance unlike many hypocrites of Arabia who feigned being believers. The disbelievers of Qorayish sent their devilish spies/agents to Yathreb (who were adamant in hypocrisy and concealed their true stance never known to Muhammad as per 9:101) to surround Muhammad and draw nearer to him; once he died, they became rulers/caliphs who committed the heinous crimes of the Arab conquests which spread disbelief in the name of Islam; such sinful caliphs became deities in the terrestrial religions of the Muhammadans.  

2- This is about the Aad people: "As for Aad, they turned arrogant on earth/Estakbaro, and opposed justice, and said, “Who is more powerful than us?” Have they not considered that God, who created them, is more powerful than they? And they went on denying Our Verses." (41:15). Their pride/arrogance caused their destruction in a most humiliating manner: "And as for Aad; they were annihilated by a furious, roaring wind. He unleashed it upon them for seven nights and eight days, in succession. You could see the people tossed around, as though they were stumps of hollow palm-trees." (69:6-7); "And in Aad. We unleashed against them the devastating wind. It spared nothing it came upon, but rendered it like decayed ruins." (51:41-42).

3- As for the Thamood people, they included arrogant, proud disbeliever and weakened believers; this is about the dialog between both groups that disputed over their prophet Saleh: "The elite of his people, who were arrogant/Estakbaro, said to the common people who had believed, “Do you know that Saleh is sent from his Lord?” They said, “We are believers in what he was sent with.” Those who were arrogant/Estakbaro said, “We reject what you believe in.”" (7:75-76); this is about the destruction of the disbelievers of Thamood: "Whereupon the quake overtook them, and they became lifeless bodies in their homes." (7:78); "And in Thamood. They were told, “Enjoy yourselves for a while.” But they defied the command of their Lord, so the lightning struck them as they looked on. They could not rise up, nor could they find help." (51:43-45).

4- This is about the Madian people: "The arrogant/Estakbaro elite among his people said, “O Shuaib, We will evict you from our town, along with those who believe with you, unless you return to our religion.” He said, “Even if we are unwilling?”" (7:88). Their destruction resembles that of Thamood: "Thereupon, the quake struck them; and they became lifeless bodies in their homes." (7:91).

5- This is about Moses' Pharaoh and his people.

5/1: "hen, after them, We sent Moses and Aaron with Our proofs to Pharaoh and his retinue members. But they acted arrogantly/Estakbaro. They were criminal people." (10:75); "hey said, “Did you come to us to divert us from what we found our ancestors following, and so that you attain arrogance/Kibriyaa on earth? We will never believe with you.”" (10:78); "To Pharaoh and his retinue members, but they turned arrogant/Estakbaro. They were superior, oppressive people." (23:46); "And Quaroon, and Pharaoh, and Haman - Moses went to them with Clear Signs, but they acted arrogantly/Estakbaro on earth..." (29:39); "He and his troops acted arrogantly/Estakbaro on earth, with no justification. They thought they would not be returned to Us." (28:39); "Moses said, “I have sought the protection of my Lord and your Lord, from every arrogant tyrant/Motakabir who does not believe in the Day of Judgment.”" (40:27).

5/2: Of course, Pharaoh and his people were tormented and humiliated by scourges/plagues during their tyranny: "So We let loose upon them the flood, and the locusts, and the lice, and the frogs, and blood - all explicit signs - but they were too arrogant/Estakbaro. They were a criminal people." (7:133); we can easily imagined how Pharaoh was horrified and humiliated by such instances of torment and he knew no rest day or night until he had to beseech Moses to supplicate to the Lord God to stop in return for allowing the Israelites to go; since he reneged on his promise once he felt 'saved', Pharaoh deserved being drowned: "Whenever a plague befell them, they would say, “O Moses, pray to your Lord for us, according to the covenant He made with you. If you lift the plague from us, we will believe in you, and let the Israelites go with you.” But when We lifted the plague from them, for a term they were to fulfill, they broke their promise. So We took vengeance on them, and drowned them in the sea - because they rejected Our signs, and paid no heed to them." (7:134-136). Instead of drawing a moral lesson from the Quranic story of Moses' Pharaoh, the self-deified, tyrannical, enthroned pharaohs of the countries of the Muhammadans never fear Allah, the Dominant, Most-High, Superior Lord, within piety though He has said the following about Pharaoh: "But he denied and defied. Then turned his back, and tried. And gathered and proclaimed. He said, “I am your Lord, the most high.” So God seized him with an exemplary punishment, in the last and in the first. In this is a lesson for whoever fears." (79:21-26).

6- This is about the disobedient disbelievers among the Israelites whose pride/arrogance drove them to murder some prophets: "We gave Moses the Book, and sent a succession of messengers after him. And We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear proofs, and We supported him with the Holy Spirit. Is it that whenever a messenger comes to you with anything your souls do not desire, you grew arrogant/Estabartom, calling some impostors, and killing others?" (2:87); besides, some of them violated the Sabbath: "And you surely knew those of you who violated the Sabbath. We said to them, “Be despicable apes!”" (2:65); "Then, when they rebelled against the commands to refrain, We said to them, “Be despicable apes.”" (7:166).









 We mention the types of arrogant, proud disbelievers in the era of Muhammad. We begin by those of arrogant, proud disbelievers of the Meccan Qorayish tribe. The Lord God says the following in the Holy Quran.

1- This is about one of them: "Then he turned back and was proud/Estakbar." (74:23), and his punishment is being caricatured in his portrayal in the Quranic context 74:11-26.

2- This is about their ridiculing and arguing against the Quranic verses: "Mostakbereen/Arrogant towards it - talked nonsense about it in gatherings - disregarded it." (23:67); this is mentioned before about the torment about which they screamed: "Until, when We seize the affluent ones among them with torment, they begin to scream. Do not scream today. You will receive no help from Us. My Verses were read to you, but you turned back on your heels. Mostakbereen/Arrogant towards it - talked nonsense about it in gatherings - disregarded it." (23:64-67).

3- This is about their defiance by demanding to see the Lord God and angels: "Those who do not expect to meet Us say, “If only the angels were sent down to us, or we could see our Lord.” They have grown arrogant/Estakbaro within themselves, and have become excessively defiant." (25:21).

4- Within their arrogance, they ridiculed Muhammad as he passed by them: "And when they see you, they take you for nothing but mockery: “Is this the one God sent as a messenger?” “He nearly led us away from our gods, had we not patiently adhered to them.” But they will know, when they witness the torment, who is further away from the path." (25:41-42); in response, the Lord God has said the following to Muhammad, likening them to misguided cattle like the disobedient ones among the Israelites: "Have you seen him who chose his desire as his god? Would you be a guardian for him? Or do you assume that most of them hear or understand? They are just like cattle, but even more misguided in their way." (25:43-44).

5- This is a comparison between them and the monotheistic believers among the Israelites in Arabia: "Say, “Have you considered? What if it is from God and you disbelieve in it? A witness from the Israelites testified to its like, and has believed, while you turned arrogant/Estakbartom. God does not guide the unjust people.”" (46:10); "Is it not a sign for them that the knowledgeable ones among the Israelites recognized it?" (26:197).

The hypocrites among the companions of Muhammad:

1- This Quranic context is about them: "When you see them, their appearance impresses you. And when they speak, you listen to what they say. They are like propped-up timber. They think every shout is aimed at them. They are the enemy, so beware of them. God condemns them; how deceived they are!And when it is said to them, “Come, the Messenger of God will ask forgiveness for you,” they bend their heads, and you see them turning away arrogantly/Mostakberoon." (63:4-5).

2- They deceived themselves since they contradicted themselves; they assumed being powerful, and the Lord God refutes them here: "They say, “If we return to the City, the more powerful therein will evict the weak.” But power belongs to God, and His Messenger, and the believers; but the hypocrites do not know." (63:8).

3- They lived within constant fear and anxiety; they ran away instead of facing dangers despite their wealth and progeny: "Let neither their possessions nor their children impress you. God intends to torment them through them in this worldly life, and that their souls depart while they are disbelievers. They swear by God that they are of you. But they are not of you. They are divisive people. Were they to find a shelter, or a cave, or a hideout, they would go to it, rushing." (9:55-57); they allied themselves to Meccan disbelievers though in Yathreb they enjoyed religious and political freedom (i.e., they rejected Islam and formed opposition movement and no one penalized/fought them because they were peaceful persons): "Those who ally themselves to the disbelievers instead of the believers. Do they seek glory in them? All glory belongs to God." (4:139).

The arrogant, proud ones in our modern era:

1- The Quranic descriptions of the hypocrites among the companions/contemporaries of Muhammad apply mostly to the imams/clergymen of the Muhammadans; this means that the Omniscient Lord God has described  hypocrites in tens of Quranic verses because He knows that generations of  hypocrites will dominate after the death of Muhammad. Hence, the tens of Quranic verses about hypocrites are not mere history; rather, they describe hypocrites in all eras and regions until the end of days; our modern era is no exception to this rule.    

2- The clergymen/imams of the Muhammadans are too proud/arrogant to believe in the Quran; the masses get deceived by their appearance, attire, influence, and authority; in fact, inside their souls, the clergymen are mean, vile, base, abominable, and nasty; this comes to the surface when they lose their high-rank positions when enthroned tyrants dismiss them in a moment of fury. Such clergymen intimidate the masses by mentioning the Hell-torment too often; it is as if such clergymen were owners/masters of the Last Day and were immune against entering into Hell; in fact, they terrify the masses of the Hell-Fire so that this deep-seated fear would enable them to control/ride the masses; hence, such arrogant clergymen never accept anyone preaching them or reminding them of piety they lack and Hell-Fire they deserve; they exist in all societies/communities and this Quranic context applies to each one of them: "Among the people is he whose speech about the worldly life impresses you, and he calls God to witness what is in his heart, while he is the most hostile of adversaries. When he gains power, he strives to spread corruption on earth, destroying properties and lives. God does not like corruption. And when he is told, “Beware of God,” his pride leads him to more sin. Hell is enough for him - a dreadful abode." (2:204-206).  

3- Those who are too arrogant/proud to believe in the Quran as the Only Discourse and Source of Islam believe in devilish deities and false gods; they deify mortals and things/books/tombs; hence, their arrogance, haughtiness, and pride are means to hide baseness and their being despicable and contemptible. In contrast, true monotheists are never arrogant as they obey their Lord God and find glory and elevation in this sincere worship devoted entirely to Him; they include Quranists who believe in the Holy Quran as the Only Discourse within Islam; these Quranic verses apply to them: " And among the people is he who sells himself seeking God’s approval. God is kind towards the servants." (2:207); "Whoever desires glory - all glory belongs to God. To Him ascends speech that is pure, and He elevates righteous conduct..." (35:10).  

Examples of arrogance in our modern era predicted by the Lord God in the Holy Quran:

1- There are those arrogant ignoramuses who argue against the Quranic verses; they pose questions like this one: (Why do not we find details of such-and-such in the Quran?!); this means they reject and disbelieve in these two Quranic verses about the fact that the Holy Quran contains all things required by monotheistic believers regarding religion and that its verses are clear; i.e., they clarify all things which require explanation: "...We neglected nothing in the Book..." (6:38); "...We have revealed to you the Book, as an explanation of all things, and guidance, mercy, and good news for those who submit." (16:89). Hence, instead of pondering deeply on the Quranic verses, they argue against them and accuse them of being vague and lacking. This is about describing their movement as they turn aside in arrogance and pride: "Among the people is he who argues about God without knowledge and follows every defiant devil." (22:3); "And among the people is he who argues about God without knowledge, or guidance, or an enlightening book. Turning aside in contempt, to lead away from the Path of God. He will have disgrace in this world, and on the Day of Resurrection We will make him taste the torment of Burning. That is for what your hands have advanced, and because God is not unjust to the servants." (22:8-10); "Those who argue against God’s Verses, without any proof having come to them - Kabur/commit a heinous sin in the sight of God, and of those who believe. Thus God seals the heart of every proud tyrant/ Motakabir." (40:35); "Those who dispute regarding God’s Verses without any authority having come to them - there is nothing in their hearts but the feeling of arrogance/superiority/Kibr, which they will never attain..." (40:56)

2- There are those arrogant ones who ascribed lies/falsehoods to the Lord God (and to His Religion) as they reject the Quranic verses out of pride and arrogance; this is about their moment of death: "Who commits graver injustice than someone who invents falsehood against God, or says, “It was revealed to me,” when nothing was revealed to him, or says, “I will reveal the like of what God revealed”? If only you could see the unjust ones in the floods of death, as the angels with arms outstretched: “Give up your souls. Today you are being repaid with the torment of shame for having said about God other than the truth, and for being too proud/Tastakberoon to accept His Verses.”" (6:93).

3- This is about Quranists/monotheists who believe in the Holy Quran as the Only Discourse in Islam: "These are the Verses of the Wise Book.A guide and a mercy for the charitable ones. Those who observe prayers and Zakat and are certain of the Hereafter. These are upon guidance from their Lord. These are the successful ones." (31:2-5); the following is about the arrogant ones, in all eras and regions, who believe in and side with distracting tales/narratives or devilish hadiths: "Among the people is he who trades in distracting tales; intending, without knowledge, to lead away from God’s Path, and to make a mockery of it. These will have a humiliating torment." (31:6).   

How can we recognize Such arrogant ones now? This is easy: one can read the Quranic verses to them and their reaction will be as follows:

1- Their hatred, aversion, disgust, and animosity towards the Quran will be shown in their facial features; they would be willing to attack those who read/quote the Quranic verses to them: "And when Our Clear Verses are read to them, you will recognize animosity on the faces of those who disbelieve. They nearly assault those who read to them Our Verses. Say, “Shall I inform you of something worse than that? The Fire! God has promised it to those who disbelieve. And what a wretched outcome!”" (22:72).

2- They arrogantly leave and distance themselves away from the readers of the Quranic verses; they ignore these Quranic verses and pretend they never heard them: "And when Our Verses are read to him, he turns away in arrogance/Mostakber, as though he did not hear them, as though there is deafness in his ears. So inform him of a painful torment." (31:7).

3- When Quranists remind them of the fact that the Holy Quran is the Only Discourse to believe in within Islam as the Lord God's Word, and, therefore, hadiths of Al-Bokhary and his likes must be rejected, they proudly insist on adhering to their disbelief/polytheism: "These are God’s Verses which We read to you in Truth. In which discourse, after God and His Verses, will they believe? Woe to every sinful liar. Who hears God's Verses being read to him, yet he persists arrogantly/Mostakber, as though he did not hear them. Bring to him good news of a painful torment." (45:6-8).

4- One can try this oneself and on one's own: one can read Quranic verses to imams/clergymen inside mosques about refuting the belief in hadiths of Al-Bokhary and his likes. The result: one will see their arrogance and disbelief in their nonverbal movements, their gestures, their words, and their looks or facial expressions; they might attack the one who quotes these Quranic verses to them: "...And who speaks more truly than God?" (4:87); "...And who is more truthful in speech than God?" (4:122); "...Which discourse, besides this, will they believe in?" (7:185); "Woe on that Day to the deniers. In what discourse, beyond this, will they believe?" (77:49-50); "Does it not suffice them that We revealed to you the Book, which is read to them? In that is mercy and a reminder for people who believe. Say, “God suffices as witness between you and me. He knows everything in the heavens and the Earth. Those who believe in falsehood and reject God - it is they who are the losers.”" (29:51-52).

5- The Lord God knows best His creatures: "Would He not know those whom He created?..." (67:14); hence, He describes their reactions as the verses of the Holy Quran/Criterion are read to them: "In fact, We hurl the Truth against falsehood, and it crushes it, so it vanishes. Woe unto you, for what you describe." (21:18); "And say, “The Truth has come, and falsehood has withered away; for falsehood is bound to wither away.”" (17:81); the Quran is guidance and a healing to those who believe in it as the Only Discourse in Islam; it certainly increases the loss of the disbelieving, unjust ones: "We send down in the Quran healing and mercy for the believers, but it increases the unjust ones only in loss." (17:82).

6- Suffice it here to quote the following about proud/arrogant ones in all eras after the descent/revelation of the Quran until the advent of the Hour: "Your God is one God. As for those who do not believe in the Hereafter, their hearts are in denial, and they are arrogant/Mostakberoon. Without a doubt, God knows what they conceal and what they reveal. He does not like the arrogant ones/Mostakbereen." (16:22-23). Of course, the Muhammadans who believe in hadiths (authored by Al-Bokhary and his likes) reject and disbelieve in the Last Day mentioned in the Quran; they believe instead in eschatological mythology including the so-called intercession; this is why they arrogantly reject and deny the Quran. In contrast, Quranists like our person dedicate their religion and acts of worship only to the Lord God and reject and deny the Sunna hadiths/lies/myths and false narratives propounded and propagated by the Muhammadans.   









 We talk about the fate of the arrogant, proud ones inside Hell; we trace this topic in the following points.

1- Iblis/Satan was expelled from the Upper Realm when he disobeyed arrogantly; he has been told the following: "He said, “Then get out of here, for you are an outcast”. “And the curse will be upon you until the Day of Judgment.” He said, “My Lord, reprieve me until the Day they are resurrected.” He said, “You are of those reprieved.” “Until the Day of the Time Appointed.” He said, “My Lord, since You have lured me away, I will glamorize for them on earth, and I will lure them all away.” “Except for Your sincere servants among them.” He said, “This is a right way with Me.” “Over My servants you have no authority, except for the sinners who follow you.” And Hell is the meeting-place for them all. “It has seven doors; for each door is an assigned class.”" (15:34-44); this means that from the very beginning, Hell is the fate ordained for Satan and his progeny and allies/followers.

2- The warning in the following verses is addressed to all human beings: "O children of Adam! When messengers from among you come to you, relating to you My Verses - whoever practices piety and reforms - upon them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. But as for those who reject Our Verses, and are too proud/Estakbaro to accept them - these are the inmates of the Fire, where they will remain forever." (7:35-36). The allies of Allah in Paradise are those good, pious monotheists. As for the proud/arrogant deniers who reject the Lord God's Word/Message (e.g., the Quranic verses), their fate is Hell.

3- The Holy Quran is the Last Message from the Lord God to humanity; in it, one finds the following details.

3- This is about the Hell-torment of the proud/arrogant ones in the Hereafter: "Your Lord has said, “Pray to Me, and I will respond to you. But those who are too proud/Yastakberoon to worship Me will enter Hell forcibly.”" (40:60); "Those who reject Our Verses and are too arrogant/Estakbaro to uphold them - the doors of Heaven will not be opened for them, nor will they enter Paradise, until the camel passes through the eye of the needle. Thus We repay the criminals." (7:40). It is impossible to imagine that the criminals who deny/reject the Quranic verses, out of their pride/arrogance, will enter into Paradise in the Hereafter.

4- The arrogant, proud imams/clergymen of the Muhammadans seek to undermine and cast doubt on the Quran all the time. In contrast, Quranists realize the fact that the Quranic Truth is the only source of guidance since the Quran is the Only Path towards Allah: "But those who strive against Our Verses - these are the inmates of Hell." (22:51); "But those who strive against Our Verses, seeking to undermine them - those will be summoned to the torment." (34:38); "As for those who strive against Our Verses, seeking to undermine them - for them is a torment of a painful plague. Those who received knowledge know that what is revealed to you from your Lord is the Truth; and it guides to the Path of the Majestic, the Praiseworthy." (34:5-6).

5- The arrogant, proud imams/clergymen of the Muhammadans argue against the Quranic verses all the time since they deny/reject them; they are warned beforehand against torment: "Have you not observed those who argue against God's Verses, how they have deviated? Those who call the Book a lie, and what We sent Our messengers with - they will surely know. When the yokes are around their necks, and they will be dragged by the chains. Into the boiling water, then in the Fire they will be tormented. Then it will be said to them, “Where are those you used to deify? Instead of God?” They will say, “They have abandoned us. In fact, we were praying to nothing before.” Thus God sends the disbelievers astray. That is because you used to rejoice on earth in other than the truth, and because you used to behave with vanity. Enter the gates of Hell, to remain therein forever. What a terrible dwelling for the arrogant ones/Al-Motakabereen." (40:69-76); they adhere to pride in public to hide their shallowness and their sticking to falsehoods: "And do not walk proudly on earth. You can neither pierce the earth, nor can you match the mountains in height." (17:37).

6- The moment of death of the pious ones differ from that of the arrogant disbelievers: "Those wronging their souls while the angels are taking them away - they will propose peace: “We did no wrong.” Yes you did. God is aware of what you used to do.” Enter the gates of Hell, to dwell therein forever. Miserable is the residence of the arrogant ones/Al-Motakabereen. And it will be said to those who maintained piety, “What has your Lord revealed?” They will say, “Goodness.” To those who do good in this world is goodness, and the Home of the Hereafter is even better. How wonderful is the residence of the pious ones. The Gardens of Perpetuity, which they will enter, beneath which rivers flow, where they will have whatever they desire. Thus God rewards the pious ones. Those who are in a wholesome state when the angels take them - will say, “Peace be upon you; enter Paradise, for what you used to do.”" (16:28-32).

7- This is about the Hereafter when each resurrected soul will receive its Book of Deeds.

7/1: This is about all human souls: "You will see every community on its knees; every community will be called to its Book: “Today you are being repaid for what you used to do. This Book of Ours speaks about you in Truth. We have been transcribing what you have been doing.”" (45:28-29).

7/2: This is about the souls of the pious ones: "As for those who believed and did righteous deeds, their Lord will admit them into His mercy. That is the clear triumph." (45:30).

7/3: This is about the souls of the arrogant criminals: "But as for those who disbelieved: “Were My Verses not read to you? But you turned arrogant/Estakbartom, and were criminal people.”" (45:31).

8- This is about the Last Day at the moment shortly before the dwellers of Hell will enter into it and the dwellers of Paradise will enter into it.

8/1: This is about Hell as the fate of arrogant ones who repelled others from the Lord God's Verses: "...“The curse of God is upon the unjust ones.” “Those who hinder from the Path of God, and seek to distort it, and who deny the Hereafter.”" (7:44-45). There will be a barrier between them and the Paradise dwellers.

8/2: Angels on foot will address both groups divided by a partition or a barrier (i.e., Paradise dwellers and Hell dwellers before each will be entering into their final destination); they will recognize the Paradise dwellers who will be very eager to enter it: "And between them is a partition, and on the Elevations are rijal (i.e., those standing on their feet) who recognize everyone by their features. They will call to the inhabitants of Paradise, “Peace be upon you.” They have not entered it, but they are hoping." (7:46). These angels will implore their Lord not to place them along with Hell dweller: "And when their eyes are directed towards the inmates of the Fire, they will say, “Our Lord, do not place us among the unjust people.”" (7:47).

8/3: These angels will rebuke the arrogant ones this way before their entering into Hell: "And the dwellers of the Elevations will call to rijal they recognize by their features, saying, “Your hoardings did not avail you, nor did your arrogance/Tastakberoon.”" (7:48).

8/4: And they will say the following to Hell dwellers about Paradise dwellers: "“Are these the ones you swore God will not touch with mercy?” “Enter into Paradise; you have nothing to fear, and you will not grieve.”" (7:49).

9- This is about driving the arrogant ones into the Hell-Fire.

9/1: They will be reminded of their arrogance which drove them to reject and deny the Lord God's Verses: "Those who disbelieved will be driven to Hell in throngs. Until, when they have reached it, and its gates are opened, its keepers will say to them, “Did not messengers from among you come to you, reading to you the Verses of your Lord, and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours?” They will say, “Yes, but the verdict of torment is justified against the disbelievers.” It will be said, “Enter the gates of Hell, to abide therein eternally.” How wretched is the destination of the arrogant ones/Motakabereen." (39:71-72).

9/2: In contrast, we read this about the pious ones upon their entering into Paradise: "And those who feared their Lord within piety will be led to Paradise in throngs. Until, when they have reached it, and its gates are opened, its keepers will say to them, “Peace be upon you, you have been good, so enter it, to abide therein eternally.” And they will say, “Praise be to God, who has fulfilled His promise to us, and made us inherit the land, enjoying Paradise as we please.” How excellent is the reward of the workers." (39:73-74).

10- This is about when the arrogant ones see the Hell-torment.

10/1: Again, they will be reminded of their arrogance which drove them to reject and deny the Lord God's Verses: "So that a soul may not say, “How sorry I am, for having neglected my duty to God, and for having been of the ridiculers.” Or say, “Had God guided me; I would have been of the pious ones.” Or say, when it sees the penalty, “If only I had another chance, I would be of the virtuous.” Yes indeed! My Verses did come to you, but you called them lies, turned arrogant/Estakbart, and were of the disbelievers." (39:56-59).

10/2: This is about human devils who are the fabricators of devilish hadiths/narratives: "On the Day of Resurrection, you will see those who told lies about God with their faces blackened. Is there not a place in Hell for the arrogant ones/Motakabereen?" (39:60).

10/3: In contrast, this is about the pious ones and their fate in Paradise therein the dwell forever in bliss: "And God will save those who maintained righteousness to their place of salvation. No harm will touch them, nor will they grieve." (39:61).

11- This is about when the arrogant ones will be made to see Hell in the Hereafter before their entering into it: " On the Day when the disbelievers will be paraded before the Fire: “You have squandered your good in your worldly life, and you took pleasure in them. So today you are being repaid with the torment of shame, because of your unjust arrogance on earth/Tastakberoon, and because you used to sin.”" (46:20).

12- There are stages of blame, hatred, and angry dialogs of the arrogant ones (leaders/imams/clergymen & masses/followers) in the Hereafter as they realize that their fate is Hell for eternity; their shared item is their arrogance as they rejected the Lord God's Verses. The Hell dwellers (before and after their entering into Hell) will virulently blame one another and blame Satan within angry dialogs; Satan will disown them: "They will emerge before God, altogether. The weak will say to those who were proud/Estakbaro, “We were your followers, can you protect us at all against God’s torment?” They will say, “Had God guided us, we would have guided you. It is the same for us; whether we mourn, or are patient; there is no asylum for us.” And Satan will say, when the issue is settled, “God has promised you the promise of truth, and I promised you, but I failed you. I had no authority over you, except that I called you, and you answered me. So do not blame me, but blame yourselves. I cannot come to your aid, nor can you come to my aid. I reject your associating with me in the past. The unjust ones will have a most painful torment.”" (14:21-22). In contrast, this is about mutual love and peace greetings among the pious ones in Paradise: "But those who believed and performed good deeds will be admitted into Gardens beneath which rivers flow, to remain therein forever, by leave of their Lord. Their greeting therein will be: “Peace.”" (14:23); "But the righteous ones will be in gardens with springs.  “Enter it in peace and security.” And We will remove all ill-feelings from their souls - brothers and sisters, on couches facing one another. No fatigue will ever touch them therein, nor will they be asked to leave it." (15:45-48). The arrogant sinners who have rejected the Quran will feud and speak angrily while blaming one another before entering into Hell and after entering into it: "Those who disbelieve say, “We will never believe in this Quran, nor in what came before it.” If you could only see the unjust ones, captive before their Lord, throwing back allegations at one another. Those who were oppressed will say to those who were arrogant/Estakbaro, “Were it not for you, we would have been believers.” Those who were arrogant/Estakbaro will say to those who were oppressed, “Was it us who turned you away from guidance when it came to you? No indeed, you yourselves were criminals.” And those who were oppressed will say to those who were arrogant/Estakbaro, “It was your scheming by night and day; as you instructed us to reject God, and to set up peers to Him.” They will hide their remorse when they see the torment. We will put yokes around the necks of those who disbelieved. Will they be repaid for anything other than what they used to do?" (34:31-33); "What about someone whose heart God has opened to Islam, so that he follows a light from His Lord? Woe to those whose hearts are hardened against the mention of God. Those are in manifest error. God has sent down the Best Discourse: a Book consistent and paired. The skins of those who reverence their Lord shiver from it, then their skins and their hearts soften up to the Remembrance of God. Such is God’s guidance; He guides with it whomever who is willing to be guided. But whomever God leaves astray, for him there is no guide. What about someone who covers his face against the terrible misery of the Day of Resurrection? To the unjust ones it will be said, “Taste what you used to earn.” Those before them also denied the truth, so the penalty came upon them from where they did not perceive. God made them taste disgrace in the present life, but the torment of the Hereafter is worse, if they only knew...God cites the example of a man shared by partners at odds, and a man belonging exclusively to one man. Are they equal in status? Praise be to God, but most of them do not know. You will die, and they will die. Then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will be quarrelling before your Lord. Who is more evil than he who lies about God, and denies the Truth when it has come to him? Is there not in Hell room for the disbelievers? But he who promotes the Truth, and testifies to it - these are the pious ones. They will have whatever they please with their Lord. Such is the reward for the charitable ones. God will acquit them of the worst of their deeds, and will reward them according to the best of what they used to do." (39:22-35); "Then they will be toppled into it, together with the tempters. And the soldiers of Satan, all of them. They will say, as they feud in it. “By God, We were in evident misguidance. For equating you with the Lord of the worlds. No one misled us except the criminals. Now we have no intercessors. And no sincere friend. If only we could have another chance, we would be among the believers.”" (26:94-102).

13- Of course, the masses/followers will address their imams/leaders/clergymen Al-Bokhary, Ibn Hanbal, Ibn Abdul-Wahab, Al-Shaarawy, Al-Sistani, Al-Qaradawy...etc. in this manner as enemies to each other (i.e., the misguiding imams & the misguided followers): "“By God, We were in evident misguidance. For equating you with the Lord of the worlds. No one misled us except the criminals." (26:97-99). They will realize – after it is too late for them – the fact that there are no intercessors and that they will remain inside Hell for eternity: "As they quarrel in the Fire, the weak will say to those who were arrogant/Estakbaro, “We were followers of yours; will you then spare us a portion of the Fire?” Those who were arrogant/Estakbaro will say, “We are all in it; God has judged between the servants.” And those in the Fire will say to the keepers of Hell, “Call to your Lord to lessen our suffering for one day.” They will say, “Did not your messengers come to you with clear signs?” They will say, “Yes.” They will say, “Then pray, but the prayers of the disbelievers will always be in vain.” Most surely We will support Our messengers and those who believe, in this life, and on the Day the witnesses arise. The Day when their excuses will not profit the unjust ones, and the curse will be upon them, and they will have the Home of Misery." (40:47-52). The followers will eventually invoke God's curse against their masters/leaders: "The Day when their faces are flipped into the Fire, they will say, “If only we had obeyed God and obeyed the Messenger.” And they will say, “Lord, we have obeyed our superiors and our dignitaries/Kubara'eina, but they led us away from the Path. Lord, give them double the torment, and curse them with a great curse.”" (33:66-68).







  We talk about how the root k/b/r and some of its derivations refer also to old age.


Introduction: facts about human beings:

 All human souls were created together in the Barsakh metaphysical level; they were created from one soul (that of Adam): "And it is He who produced you from a single soul, then a repository, then a depository..." (6:98); each soul enters into this world while wearing human flesh to be tested; each second of its predetermined lifetime enters into its Book of Deeds; the countdown of one's death begins once one is born; one dies after fulfilling the duration preordained for one's soul on earth: "God created you from dust, then from a small drop; then He made you pairs. No female conceives, or delivers, except with His knowledge. No living thing advances in years, or its life is shortened, except it be in a Record. That is surely easy for God." (35:11); "No soul can die except by God’s leave, at a predetermined time..." (3:145). This is linked to old, senile age (or Kibar which is the Quranic/Arabic term); besides, the Quranic/Arabic term sheikh means an old man and NOT any clergymen; the religion of Islam has no clergy; clergymen have nothing to do with Islam.  


Firstly: the old, senile age is the last stage of the life-duration of human beings:

 The Lord God says the following in the Holy Quran.

1- "O people! If you are in doubt about the Resurrection—We created you from dust, then from a small drop, then from a clinging clot, then from a lump of flesh, partly developed and partly undeveloped. In order to clarify things for you. And We settle in the wombs whatever We will for a designated term, and then We bring you out as infants, until you reach your full strength. And some of you will pass away, and some of you will be returned to the vilest age, so that he may not know, after having known..." (22:5); "And that it is He who created the two kinds - the male and the female. From a sperm drop, when emitted." (53:45-46). Adam, as well as his descendants (i.e., all human beings), was created of dust/mud of the earth. Of course, ova and spermatozoa are created from food planted within the earth's soil; they change into many stages of creation; in the stage of the old, senile age, one may lose one's memory; one becomes weak as a child.

2- "We created man from an extract of mud. Then We made him a seed, in a secure repository. Then We developed the seed into a clot. Then We developed the clot into a lump. Then We developed the lump into bones. Then We clothed the bones with flesh. Then We produced it into another creature. Most Blessed is God, the Best of creators. Then, after that, you will die. Then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will be resurrected." (23:12-16). Thus, the creation of a human being passes through many stages; souls wear human flesh to be tested in this world; they eventually die and return to Barsakh while carrying their Books of Deeds on which Judgment in the Hereafter will be based.

3- "God created you; then He takes you away. Some of you will be brought back to the worst age, so that he will no longer know anything, after having acquired knowledge. God is Omniscient and Omnipotent." (16:70). This is also about the old, senile age; some people are diagnosed with Alzheimer's diseases at this advanced stage in life.

4- "God is He Who created you weak, then after weakness gave you strength, then after strength gave you weakness and gray hair. He creates whatever He wills. He is the Omniscient, the Omnipotent." (30:54). The stage of weakness during childhood is followed by the stage of strength during youth; this is followed by the stage of weakness within the old, senile age.


Secondly: the old, senile age within the Quranic stories:

Within the Quranic story of Abraham:

1- In his old age, Abraham begot Ishmael and then Isaac; he lived and witnessed the birth of his grandson Jacob/Israel. Abraham thanked and praised his Lord God this way: "“Praise be to God, Who has given me, in my old age/Kibar, Ishmael and Isaac. My Lord is the Hearer of prayers.”" (14:39).

2- In his old age, Abraham received angels who took human form; they brought to him glad tidings of the birth of Isaac (his second son) and the birth of a grandson: Jacob/Israel. Abraham has said the following to the angels: "He said, “Do you bring me good news, when old age/Kibar has overtaken me? What good news do you bring?”" (15:54). Old age in the Quranic/Arabic tongue is (Kibar). The Quranic term (sheikh) means literally an old man: "His wife was standing by, so she laughed. And We gave her good news of Isaac; and after Isaac, Jacob. She said, “Alas for me. Shall I give birth, when I am an old woman, and this, my husband, is an old man/sheikh? This is truly a strange thing.”" (11:71-72).

Within the Quranic story of Joseph:

1- The brothers of Joseph addressed Joseph the Potiphar (or grand vizier) of Egypt, without recognizing him, while telling him that their father (Jacob/Israel) is a sheikh; i.e., an old man: "They said, “O noble prince, he has a father, a very old man/sheikh, so take one of us in his place. We see that you are a good person.”" (12:78). 

2- The term Kabeer/big/old here refers to the eldest brother among the brothers of Joseph and not to any old man: "And when they despaired of him, they conferred privately. Their eldest/Kabeer said, “Don’t you know that your father received a pledge from you before God, and in the past you failed with regard to Joseph?..." (12:80).

Within the Quranic story of Moses:

 The two sisters in Madian had to work as their father was an old man; i.e., a sheikh: "...They said, “We cannot draw water until the shepherds depart, and our father is a very old man/sheikh .”" (28:23).

Within the Quranic story of Zachariah:

1- "He said, “My Lord, how will I have a son, when old age/Kibar has overtaken me, and my wife is barren?”..." (3:40).

2- "He said, “My Lord, how can I have a son, when my wife is barren, and I have become decrepit with old age/Kibar?” " (19:8).

The senile, old age within the Quranic legislations:

 This is about being kind/charitable to one's parents: "Your Lord has commanded that you worship none but Him, and that you be good to your parents. If either of them or both of them reach old age/Kibar with you, do not say to them a word of disrespect, nor scold them, but say to them kind words." (17:23); this is about keeping the wealth of orphans and giving it to them when they grow up and become mature or old enough: "Test the orphans until they reach the age of marriage. If you find them to be mature enough, hand over their properties to them. And do not consume it extravagantly or hastily before they grow up/Yakbaro..." (4:6).

The old, senile age within the Quranic preaching:

 The Lord God says the following in the Holy Quran: "Would anyone of you like to have a garden of palms and vines, under which rivers flow - with all kinds of fruit in it for him, and old age/Kibar has stricken him, and he has weak children - then a tornado with fire batters it, and it burns down? Thus God makes clear the signs for you, so that you may reflect." (2:266); this great parable in this great Quranic verse reminds us of enthroned tyrants who spent their lives within disobedience and committing grave sins and injustices until they reached the old, senile age when it is too late for them to reform and make amends if they ever thought about repentance in the first place.


Lastly: the torment of burning:

 The torment of burning exists in this transient world; for instance, the disbelieving polytheists among the people of Abraham tried to burn him alive: "They said, “Burn him and support your gods, if you are going to act.” We said, “O fire, be coolness and peace upon Abraham.”" (14:68-69); "But the only response from his people was their saying, “Kill him, or burn him.” But God saved him from the fire. Surely in that are signs for people who believe." (29:24). Moses said the following to Al-Samiri who carved the calf of gold in Sinai to misguide the Israelites: "...Now look at your god that you remained devoted to - we will burn it up, and then blow it away into the sea, as powder.”" (20:97). Some disbelieving tyrants burned alive weakened monotheistic believers in a trench: "Destroyed were the People of the Trench. The fire supplied with fuel. While they sat around it." (85:4-6).

 The torment of burning exists inside Hell in the Hereafter as well; the Lord God says the following in the Holy Quran.

1- "Those who persecute the believers, men and women, then do not repent; for them is the torment of Hell; for them is the torment of Burning." (85:10); this is Hell-torment deserved by those persecutors who practice compulsion in religion and force believers to reject their faith and embrace polytheistic notions.

2- "God has heard the statement of those who said, “God is poor, and we are rich.” We will write down what they said, and their wrongful killing of the prophets; and We will say, “Taste the torment of the burning.”" (3:181); this means that Hell-torment is the fate of those, in all eras until the advent of the Hour, who ascribe lies to the Lord God. They exist even now in our modern era! They are the big criminals/clergymen of the Muhammadans.

3- "If only you could see, as the angels take away those who disbelieve, striking their faces and their bottoms: “Taste the torment of the Burning.”" (8:50); the angels of death bring those dying disbelievers news of their fate: Hell-torment of eternity.

4- "And among the people is he who argues about God without knowledge, or guidance, or an enlightening book. Turning aside in contempt, to lead away from the Path of God. He will have disgrace in this world, and on the Day of Resurrection We will make him taste the torment of Burning." (22:8-9); the Lord God informs beforehand those arrogant ones who argue against the Quranic verses within their ignorance of their experiencing disgrace in this world and also of their fate within Hell-torment for eternity in the Hereafter.

5- "Here are two adversaries feuding regarding their Lord. As for those who disbelieve, garments of fire will be tailored for them, and scalding water will be poured over their heads. Melting their insides and their skins. And they will have maces of iron. Whenever they try to escape the gloom, they will be driven back to it: “Taste the torment of burning.” But God will admit those who believe and perform good deeds into Gardens beneath which rivers flow. They will be decorated therein with bracelets of gold and pearls, and their garments therein will be of silk. They were guided to purity of speech. They were guided to the Path of the Most Praised." (22:19-24). Of course, the Quranists (who adhere to the Divine, Celestial Religion found exclusively in the Holy Quran) and the Muhammadans (who adhere to terrestrial religions) are adversaries who dispute over one topic; i.e., the Lord God. This dispute has nothing to do with political or financial interests. The Muhammadans assume that Allah does not own the Day of Judgment assumed by them to be owned by intercessors who revoke the verdicts of Allah. Quranists assert that such a myth is a blasphemy against Allah. The Muhammadans assume that the Quran is vague and lacking and hence the 'importance' of their hadiths and fiqh books though such books contradict the Quranic verses; they assume that their books of fiqh and hadiths replace/supplant the Quranic sharia legislations! For Quranists, this is another blasphemy and a sign of the Muhammadans' rejection of the Quran. In contrast, Quranists believe in the Holy Quran, the Lord God's Word, as the Only Source of Islam. The Muhammadans are polytheists who deify mortals and things/tombs as the Lord God is never enough for them; in contrast, Quranists are monotheists who believe in Allah as the Only and One Lord God Who is their Ally, Supporter, and Intercessor; this is the same monotheistic faith of all messengers/prophets of the Lord God. Quranists believe in the fact that the Holy Quran is the Only Discourse within Islam; the Muhammadans insist on adhering to sanctified books written by so many authors of the Middle-Ages! Hence, Quranists and the Muhammadans are adversaries in religion; Quranists wait for the Judgment of the Lord God regarding themselves and the Muhammadans on the Last Day. The Lord God is the Owner/Master of the Last Day without any partners; in His Word, the Holy Quran, He asserts that the fate of arrogant disbelievers/polytheists is Hell for eternity. In contrast, those guided by the Holy Quran only are guided to purity of speech and to the Path of the Most Praised Lord God; this means their fate is Paradise wherein they will dwell forever in bliss and pleasure.


A Reminder:

1- Tormenting others in this world by fire is temporary; it ends in a coma/fainting of senselessness and then death; in contrast, as per the Holy Quran, the torment of Hell-Fire in the Hereafter lasts forever; it continues without being lessened and no Hell inmates will be allowed to sleep or to get out of Hell. 

2- In this world, one cannot hold fire by one's bare hands for few seconds; let alone sensing for eternity the unbearable Hell-Fire.

3- Therefore, we understand that the Quranic preaching for all people, in advance before they die, includes to believe in the Holy Quran as the Only Discourse within Islam: "Have they not observed the government of the heavens and the earth, and all the things that God created, and that their time may have drawn near? Which discourse, besides this, will they believe in?" (7:185). 

4- As always, the Lord God says nothing but the Absolute Truth.

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