Search:
From the Archive
Satan and the Worship of Whims and Desires
When Muhammad – Peace Be upon him – Was Saddened
Question: Should Muslim brotherhood should be banned?
Commenting on the statements of Pope
Les soi-disant écoles «coraniques» en Tunisie qui rejettent et mettent en doute le Coran
The New best ways to overcome Terrorism
"...But God Cleared him of What They Said..." (Quran 33:69): About Lies and Falsehoods Invented by Hadiths-Fabricators about Moses
Quranic Terminology: Al-Qayyum
The Curse of Terrorism and the Efficiency of Egyptian Police Officers
Fatwas Part Seventy-Three
Quranic Terminology: (Reach):
The Quranic Term (Better) Within Deeds and Comparatives
Our Response to Al-Qaeda Criminals Inciting their Terrorists to Murder Our Person
Pakistan: Bhatti's Murderers Promise More to Come
How Nations Would Guard Themselves against God's ýTorment in This Wor
Violence against Coptic Christians Continues
A statement by The International Quranic Center regarding travel ban i
Muhammad Does not Embody Islam, Let Alone Muslims
Preface of : Third part: Aspects of war of ideas
Fatwas Part Sixty-Seven
Issued by: Dr. Ahmed Subhy Mansour, translated by: Ahmed Fathy
Fatwas Part One-Hundred-and-Forty

                           Fatwas Part One-Hundred-and-Forty

 

 

Issued by: Dr. Ahmed Subhy Mansour, translated by: Ahmed Fathy

 

 

 

 

 

My American Daughter!

Published in October 5, 2019

 

Question: … Dear Sir, …  I live in the USA. My wife died years ago, leaving me our only daughter. I decided not to remarry; I brought my own mother from Egypt to care for my daughter. Because of my time-consuming job, my best moments are the few ones I spent with my daughter and my mother; my job keeps me out of home for half of the week. I am too busy. My daughter has grown up and changed; her female colleagues came to visit her and my mother served them food, etc. though she does not understand English. The demands of my daughter increased; I never refused her anything; I desired to make up for the loss of her mother and for my almost constant absence. I gave her my credit card. That was my mistake; my bank account is almost empty now; she spent my savings in shopping for clothes, eating out in restaurants, and attending parties with her friend and colleagues. When I discussed this matter with her, I yelled at her face; suddenly, I found policemen inside my home! She phoned them and accused me - falsely - in front of them that I beat her because I desire to force her to perform prayers and to wear the veil/hijab! She accused me falsely of trying to force her to stop wearing swimming suits and hot shorts and to never attend evening parties with her friends! I was detained in the police station for 3 days! An employee came from her high school to discuss the problem with her and with me. Eventually, it was settled that she should stay under my roof until she would reach the age of 18. I now consider my daughter as dead or missed; this girl is a stranger to me! For many months, I never interfered in her life and I never talked to her. On her 18th birthday, she took all her belongings and left my house; my mother kept crying and weeping; I remained motionless and I felt that I'll never miss this ungrateful daughter. Months passed; suddenly, she contacted me; she desired to return to my home provided that I accept that her boyfriend would live with her in her room! I adamantly refused, of course. My mother wept and begged me to accept her return if this boyfriend would marry her; when this suggestion was made to my daughter, she and her boyfriend refused to get married! My mother is pining for her only granddaughter; she begs me to accept the suggestion to rent the basement for my daughter (the fornicator!) and her boyfriend! When my mother made this suggestion to my daughter through the phone, my daughter accepted, provided that she pays nothing at all and that she and her boyfriend would eat all meals at home and that I cover all expenses of their living together! I refused categorically. My mother is depressed and she is still pining for her only granddaughter; she pressurizes me to welcome my daughter home; I cannot do this! What am I supposed to do?! Any advice?!   … Thank you …

Answer:

 Your ungrateful daughter is both American and Egyptian; she desires to have the advantages of both nationalities as per what would serve her interests. As per American values, she is free in doing what she likes with her body and no one (i.e., parents) would have the right to criticize her behavior. In return for this freedom, American values impose bearing responsibility for oneself and financial independence. Your daughter dislikes this responsibility and welcomes only her 'freedom'. As per Egyptian values, a father who spends on his daughter has the right to criticize her behavior and to bring her up. Your daughter hates this upbringing and criticism but desires your money as a doting Egyptian father. Thus, she desires freedom of having a boyfriend while you continue spending money on her and covering all expenses of her lifestyle. This is most unfair. Since she is an American young woman (who probably never visited Egypt), you have to be an American father to her; never allow her into your house; let the passage of time change and teach her; never give her money; living under your roof means abiding by your rules. She cannot accept this; she must go and never come back. Be more kind and charitable towards your mother; she is keen on having her granddaughter back because she suffers boredom while you are busy. Specify more time to spend with your mother; you can make her return to Egypt or you can travel with her elsewhere on a vacation; this way, she will forget this ungrateful daughter of yours. 

 

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------------          

 

The Inheritance Share of An Ungrateful Son

Published in October 5, 2019

 

 

Question: … Dear Sir, …  Is it OK, within Qurnaism, to deprive an ungrateful son from his due inheritance share by virtue of a written will and testament? This wicked son has caused much harm to his father all his life...............What do you think? … Thank you …

Answer:

 No. This is a grave sin; those who transgress or violate the Quranic inheritance laws will enter into Hell forever if they died without repentance and making amends; we know this for sure from the Quranic verse 4:14 which comes by the end of these inheritance laws: "These are the laws set by God...But whoever disobeys God and His Messenger, and violate His laws, He will admit him into a Fire, wherein he abides forever, and he will have a shameful torment." (4:13-14). Hence, this ungrateful son must have his rightful inheritance share. By the way, as per the Quran, the written will and testament is about donating money-sums or possessions to some people BEFORE the distribution of inheritance shares to rightful inheritors. Thus, no father has the right to make a written will and testament to deprive his son (or any other inheritors) from the due inheritance share.   

 

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------------

 

Egypt Is the Gift of the Egyptians

Published in October 6, 2019

 

 

Question: … Dear Sir, … The Greek historian Herodotus called Egypt the "gift of the Nile", since the ancient Egyptian kingdom owed its survival to the annual flooding of the Nile; what do you think of that phrase: (Egypt is the gift of the Nile)? Is the River Nile a gift from the Lord God to the Egyptian nation or not? … Thank you …

Answer:

 Herodotus is wrong; he should have written that Egypt is the gift of the Egyptians. A great millennia-old civilization emerged in Egypt but not in the other countries through which the River Nile passes in Africa. This means Egypt is the gift of the Egyptians and not the gift of the River Nile.

 

 

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------                    

 

A Very Poor Man, But...

Published in October 6, 2019

 

Question: … Dear Sir, … I am a very poor employee; I am a husband and I have many children; my low salary/income is hardly enough to make ends meet every month; sometimes, I indulge in daydreaming: I wish I were a billionaire who would distribute cash on poor citizens; I find myself preoccupied with this question: would the Lord God reward me for this good intention?! I wish I had enough money to help the poor..........  … Thank you …    

Answer:

 The answer to your question is no; intentions is not rewarded unless combined with good deeds. Charity and good deeds are never confined to money donations; they can be helping others in many other ways away from financial help. You have other bounties bestowed by the Lord God on you: your spare time, your good health, your youth, and your intelligence; did you thank the Lord God for these bounties by performing charitable acts and good deeds? Being merciful and kind to others (by deeds and words) and to pardon them when they wrong you are among the best good deeds; have you took some of your time to help a neighbor or relative, for instance? Stop your daydreaming and quit being insulated inside your shell, isolated at your home; get active by cooperating with others in acts of charity and piety.

 

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------

                

Distributing One-Fifth of the Spoils

Published in October 7, 2019

 

 

Question: … Dear Sir, … What is meant by 1/5 as the share of Allah and the Messenger here: "And know that whatever spoils you gain, to Allah belongs its fifth, and to the Messenger, and the relatives, and the orphans, and the poor, and to the wayfarer, provided you believe in God and in what We revealed to Our servant on the Day of Distinction, the day when the two armies met. God is Capable of everything." (8:41)? Any ideas? … Thank you …      

Answer:

 This means to spend this share on the endeavors to spread the Quranic message (i.e., the Dawah: the proselytization or the call to Islam which is the Quran only); this includes money spent on self-defense military endeavors when believers are being attacked or persecuted by nonbelievers. Of course, spoils came within self-defense fighting only and NEVER from any wars of aggression. The term (relatives) in 8:41 means relatives of fighters. There are spoils which come without war and are distributed to those who deserve shares from it (not the 1/5), as per 59:6-7. Some Shiites imams wrongly assume that the terms (Messenger) and (relatives) refer to Muhammad and Ali and  their household members; this is illogical; Muhammad never took fees or wages from anyone and he did not give any money of spoils to his daughter Fatima and her husband Ali (his paternal uncle's son) and he never gave money to his (non)believing paternal uncles. Besides, no one can decide where are the descendants of Muhammad now; they died. This means that this Shiite notion is quite wrong.

 

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                    

 

About the Lord God, Moses, and Sinai  

Published in October 7, 2019

 

  

Question: … Dear Sir, … My question is about the Burning Bush in Sinai, Egypt: Did God talk to Moses through it? Does God manifest Himself in worldly, tangible things? If not, who did talk to Moses through the Burning Bush in the sacred valley of Tuwa as per the Quranic story? Is it a sacred valley because God manifests Himself or His Voice there near Mount Al-Tur? Any ideas? … Thank you …      

Answer:

  It is a Sufi blasphemous notion of polytheism to assume that the Lord God manifests Himself in things or mortals; such an assumption is utter disbelief. In the Quran, to bless a place or to make it sacred simply means to purify it; this does not mean that we would perform pilgrimage to Sinai and its Mount Al-Tur; in Islam, no monotheists should deify/sanctify things or locations; only pagans and polytheists commit this grave sin. The following Quranic verses show clearly that this location, where Moses heard the voice of the Lord God talking to him, is purified because divine revelation occurred there; that is all. "When Moses said to his family, “I have glimpsed a fire. I will bring you some news from it; or bring you a firebrand, that you may warm yourselves.” Then, when he reached it, he was called: “Blessed is He who is within the fire, and He who is around it, and glorified be God, Lord of the Worlds. O Moses, it is I, God, the Almighty, the Wise." (27:7-9); "Has the story of Moses reached you? When he saw a fire, he said to his family, “Stay; I have noticed a fire; Perhaps I can bring you a torch therefrom, or find some guidance by the fire.”Then, when he reached it, he was called, “O Moses. I - I am your Lord. Take off your shoes. You are in the sacred valley of Tuwa." (20:9-12); "When Moses had completed the term, and departed with his family, he noticed a fire by the side of the Mount. He said to his family, “Stay here, I have glimpsed a fire. Perhaps I can bring you some information from there, or an ember from the fire, that you may warm yourselves.” When he reached it, he was called from the right side of the valley, at the blessed spot, from the bush: “O Moses, it is I, God, the Lord of the Worlds." (28:29-30). 

 

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                    

 

You Are Welcome, But...

Published in October 8, 2019

 

 

 

Question: … Dear Sir, … I have no university degree; I have no academic background; yet, as an autodidact, my ideas of the Quran-based religious reform are written in many articles online and I've published a book in Arabic about refuting the notion of Naskh in the Quran; here is the link of the book and another link for my articles: ......................... I'd be honored if I'd be allowed to write and publish articles on your great Qurnaism website; of course, you can read/review my writings and inform me of your view of them. I trust you and I appreciate and value your opinion very much........... … Thank you in advance …      

Answer:

 You are very welcome as a writer on our website, provided that you never quote any hadiths except to refute them and that you never deny any Quranic facts. We thank you for trusting our person, but we have no time to review/read any books or articles of anyone; we never care if Quranist writers within our website have obtained university degrees or not; the content of your research is what matters most. Many people, despite holding the PhD degree or its equivalent, are ignoramuses who write nothing but lies and myths as far as religion is concerned. Of course, we advise you to read our own book about Naskh. We offer our books for free online and in PDF versions and allow others to re-publish them in hardcopies and softcopies without monopoly in order to spread and propagate Quranism for the sake of pleasing the Lord God. 

 

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                     

 

About the Quranic Inheritance Laws

Published in October 8, 2019

 

 

Question:  … Dear Sir, … I quite disapprove of theQuranic inheritance laws; why would a male receive the double share of a female?........................... … Thank you …      

Answer:

 The Quranic inheritance laws are never contradicted or disregarded by true monotheists; those who transgress or violate the Quranic inheritance laws will enter into Hell forever if they died without repentance and making amends: "These are the laws set by God...But whoever disobeys God and His Messenger, and violate His laws, He will admit him into a Fire, wherein he abides forever, and he will have a shameful torment." (4:13-14). We refer you to our own book about inheritance laws in the Quran. Of course, the Quran mentions the written will and testament so that people would preserve the rights of others. By the way, the Quranic rule that the male has the inheritance share which is equivalent of two females applies to siblings and offspring and not the male and female parents of a deceased person. 

 

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                    

 

Inheriting Ill-Gotten Money

Published in October 9, 2019

 

Question: … Dear Sir, … I know quite well that my late father's wealth consists of nothing but ill-gotten money; I've inherited all his money as his only heir/inheritor. As per Quranism, am I allowed to inherit and spend this money or not? Any ideas?! … Thank you …   

Answer:

 Yes; you can keep and spend your inherited money; the sins of amassing ill-gotten money, as well as their consequences in this world and the next one, fall on your late father and not on you. Inheritance money are legal/lawful and OK in Islam regardless of the source of such money/wealth owned by the deceased person. Of course, as is the case with all God-fearing monotheists who have any amounts of money or income, they spend it within piety and they donate sums for charity and within Zakat. You should do this more often for your own sake as a believer in the Hereafter regardless of the misdeeds of your late father.

 

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                    

 

About the Laudable Position

Published in October 9, 2019

 

 

Question: … Dear Sir, …  What is meant by the term (laudable position) mentioned in 17:79? Is this Quranic verse addressed to Muhammad only or to all true believers as well? Any ideas? … Thank you …     

Answer:

 This term is a description of the Eternal Paradise in the Hereafter: "And keep vigil with it during parts of the night, as extra prayers. Perhaps your Lord will raise you to a laudable position." (17:79). This verse addresses both Muhammad and all believers in all eras. The Lord God says the following in the Quran: "The Gardens of Eden, which they will enter. They will be adorned therein with gold bracelets and pearls, and their garments therein will be of silk.And they will say, “Praise God, who has lifted all sorrow from us. Our Lord is Most Forgiving, Most Appreciative. He Who settled us in the Home of Permanence, by His grace, where boredom will not touch us, and fatigue will not afflict us.”" (35:33-35); "As for those who believe and do good deeds, their Lord guides them in their faith. Rivers will flow beneath them in the Gardens of Bliss.Their call therein is, “Glory be to You, our God.” And their greeting therein is, “Peace.” And the last of their call is, “Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds.”" (10:9-10).

 

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------

 

Getting Rid of Alcoholic Beverages

Published in October 10, 2019

 

Question: …  Dear Sir, … Previously, before my repentance, I used to sell alcoholic beverages in my shop; some bottles remain in my shop; how should I get rid of it? Shall I offer them for free, sell them (for the last time in my life), or throw them into the garbage dump? Any ideas? …  Thank you …        

Answer:

 Such alcoholic beverages are abominations; you should get rid of these bottles in your shop; you should spill the liquid contained in them somewhere so that no one would consume it. May the Lord God bless you and accept your repentance.

 

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                    

 

Inveterate Liars among Arabs

Published in October 10, 2019

 

 

 

Question: … Dear Sir,  … I feel so sad because some Arabs who defend their Arabic tongue assume they are doing a good thing to ascribe lies about it to the Lord God; they spread lies such as this one: Arabic is the tongue/language of the Lord God and the angels! Here's another one: they assume that no one will speak any tongue but Arabic inside Paradise in the Hereafter! What is the fate of such inveterate liars who attribute lies and falsehoods to the Lord God?! … Thank you …

Answer:

 Those who ascribe hadiths/narratives to the Lord God and/or Muhammad (and those who believe in hadiths/lies) are the worst kind of the unjust ones who wrong the Lord God; their fate in the Hereafter, in case of never repenting sincerely before their death, is Hell wherein they will abide forever.

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------    

 

The Myth of the Seven Readings/Recitations of the Quran

Published in October 11, 2019

 

 

Question: … Dear Sir, …  I sometimes hear many Quranic recitations which differ a lot in how one pronounces some words! .... Some written PDF versions of the Quran, in Arabic, have modernized spellings; is this OK or not?! …  Thank you …

Answer:

 This is never OK; the myth of seven different readings of Quranic verses, with subsequent change in meanings of some words, began in the Abbasid Era; besides, to recite/sing the Quran (i.e., turning it into lyrics of a song) is a grave sin; money gained that way is ill-gotten money. No one has the right to change the spelling of the Quranic verses; the letters in Quranic words are part of the numerical miracles of the Quran. Those who undermine and strive against the Lord God's Verses (e.g., by the distortions we've mentioned above or by changing the meanings of the Quranic verses) have emerged in all eras until now; they are warned here: "Those who strive against Our Verses are not hidden from Us. Is he who is hurled into the Fire better? Or he who arrives safely on the Day of Resurrection? Do as you please; He is Seeing of everything you do. " (41:40). Of course, the unique, special spellings of the Quranic words differ from modern Arabic spelling; the Lord God protects the Quranic text Himself. The Quran has no different readings and it is never to be recited/sung at all. It has one way of reading, its verses are arranged by the Lord God Himself, and its verses explain one another: "Upon Us is its collection and its reading. Then, when We have read it, follow its reading. Then upon Us is its explanation." (75:17-19).  

  

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------                    

 

Smoking Hash!

Published in October 11, 2019

 

Question: … Dear Sir,  … Is it prohibited in Islam or not to smoke hash? Any ideas? … Thank you …     

Answer:

 No. Smoking hash or cigar(ettes) is never prohibited in Islam. This is because no one is to add to the list of prohibited items in the Holy Quran. The Lord God is the Only Legislator in Islam. Of course, secular laws can be issued to restrict or ban the use of hash, heroin, opium, narcotics, drugs, or weed (or anything else linked to substance abuse) without ascribing such a secular prohibition to the name of Islam.

   

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                    

 

Marriage in Relation to the Preordained Fates

Published in October 12, 2019

 

Question: … Dear Sir,  … Is my choosing a certain woman to be my wife part of preordained fates in Islam or not? Any ideas? … Thank you … 

Answer:

 No. One chooses (not) to get married and chooses one's spouse. The preordained fate of birth has nothing to do with marriage itself; some married couples never have any offspring despite seeking this and wishing for it; in contrast, some fornicators have illegitimate children. Thus, one chooses to have marital or illicit sex, but one cannot fully control if children would be born or not as this is part of fate. Of course, natural children must have their rights (e.g., having a surname, official papers, and inheritance shares) from their biological parents.   

  

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                    

 

A Question about an Inheritance Share

Published in October 12, 2019

 

Question: … Dear Sir, … When my father died, I tried to contact my brother to get back to our homeland to receive his inheritance share; I managed only to notify his wife and children; weeks passed and he has not shown up. This is mysterious; I told his wife that I give him a week's chance to show up to receive his money. He never did. I need my own share badly and I cannot wait; what am I supposed to do with his share?! …  Thank you …    

Answer:

 Of course, you cannot add his share to yours; you cannot deliver this share to his wife and children or to anyone else. You should deposit his share in a bank account in his name; taking any other measures without the prior written consent of your brother (and within the presence of witnesses) is illegal in Islam. Of course, those who violate inheritance shares (i.e., by stealing shares of others partially or wholly) will enter into Hell for eternity in case they die without sincere repentance and making amends.

 

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                    

 

Jesus in the Holy Quran

Published in October 13, 2019

 

 

Question: … Dear Sir,  … Why does the Quran employ the name (Eissa) for Jesus and not (Yeshua) of the Hebrew tongue or the Coptic/Arabic name (Yasu')? Any ideas … Thank you …    

Answer:

 Of course, the names of all messengers/prophets of the Lord God have their variants in different tongues; Eissa Ibn Maryam is the name of Jesus son of Mary in the Quranic/Arabic tongue. The name has other pronunciations and spellings in other ancient and modern tongues.

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                    

 

(Walking) in the Quran

Published in October 13, 2019

 

Question: … Dear Sir, … I desire to pose a question about the Quranic command to walk/roam the Earth..........Besides, how would this be linked to verifying one's purification (i.e., ablution) before prayers? … Thank you …  

Answer:

 The Quranic command (to walk) is linked to both the figurative, metaphoric style and the direct, declarative style in the Quran; it is linked to seeking provisions, drawing lessons from monuments and things left by ancient civilizations, immigrating, traveling, fighting, running away from chasers/aggressors, and exploring/studying things on Earth in a scientific way. For more details, we refer you to our article, in English, found on this link:

http://www.ahl-alquran.com/English/show_article.php?main_id=17247

 Of course, roaming the Earth in the sense of traveling is linked to fasting while traveling if one is able to do it; otherwise, one would stop fasting if fatigue or inability hinders one during one's travels; see 2:184. As for prayers, one can pray while traveling even if there is no water for ablution/purification, Tayammum can be performed by wiping one's face and hands with a clean surface; e.g., a wall, a towel, or a handkerchief; see 3:43 and 5:6. See also our previous articles, fatwas, and videos about the meaning of Tayammum. Of course, we never approve of the stance of those who are obsessed with physical cleanliness; such an obsession regarding bodily cleanliness has nothing to do with Islam; it is a sickness which sometimes we find among the Muhammadans in their terrestrial/earthly religions. Of course, ease/facilitation is among the chief legislative purposes in the Quranic sharia laws of Islam, especially within acts of worship. One's prayers are accepted by the Lord God when one adheres to piety and to monotheism; i.e., by avoiding sins as much as possible and by never deifying/sanctifying things and mortals. Sadly, the polytheistic Muhammadans worship, deify, venerate, and sanctify things, tombs, and mortals (prophets and non-prophets [i.e., saints]); they also deify Muhammad; they perform prayers as mere, meaningless movements; yet, they complicate their fiqh rules regarding many topics including purification/ablution to conceal (and distract the attention of others away from) the abomination inside their souls/hearts: i.e., polytheism resulting from their faulty fiqh notions and their devilish, erroneous narratives/hadiths.        

 

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                    

 

Dancing of a Female MB Member!

Published in October 14, 2019

 

Question: … Dear Sir, … A female MB member and activist who always uploads videos of herself to denounce, criticize, and insult Al-Sisi has been watched recently in another video (uploaded by someone else) as she was belly-dancing in a seductive, provocative manner; this old video of her was shot before her donning the veil/hijab and joining the ranks of the terrorist MB organization; this video exposes her as a hypocrite; we can cast doubt on her views of the Egyptian regime now, right? What do you think? … Thank you …  

Answer:

 Of course, your question reflects a social crisis in the thought of Egyptian youths; we are against both the Al-Sisi regime and the terrorist MB organization. We hate belly-dancing and we never consider it an art. If the video of her dancing is not fabricated, we never care if she danced or not; you should focus on her political views to examine if they are right or wrong; ideology should be refuted or faced by another ideology within free speech and open discussion. Of course, the MB members are never infallible and/or pious people; they are never superior to other people; they are never more 'Muslims' than others; we are against their mixing politics with religion; we are against their vision of theocracy; we are against their ascribing their crimes and terrorism to the Lord God's Religion. We are against the manipulation of the name of Islam by power-seeking people or within any political endeavors by anyone. The political dancing and hypocrisy of the terrorist MB members and other Wahabis/Salafists are worse than belly-dancing, for sure.  

 

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------                             

 

 

The Meaning of (Muhammad)

Published in October 14, 2019

 

Question: … Dear Sir, … What is the meaning of the proper name or first-name (Muhammad)? Any ideas? … Thank you …        

Answer:

 In Arabic, it literally means (the praiseworthy one); i.e., the one whose deeds are worthy of praise. Of course, this is in contrast to unjust ones and tyrants who committed crimes and injustices, and yet, they desire to be praised by people; the Lord God says the following in the Quran: "Do not think that those who rejoice in what they have done, and love to be praised for what they have not done - do not think they can evade the torment. They will have a painful torment." (3:188).  


The views and opinions of authors whose articles and comments are posted on this site do not necessarily reflect the views of IQC.