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Quranic Terminology: Proof

Quranic Terminology: Proof

Published in January 31, 2018

Translated by: Ahmed Fathy



1- We have received this question via email from one of our dear Quranist friends: (... God says in the Quran: "Whoever invokes another deity besides Allah - he has no proof thereof - his judgment rests with his Lord. The disbelievers will not succeed." (23:117). My question is as follows: what does "proof" here mean exactly? What about if polytheists would have a proof of the existence of their deities? Would not they be judged, then?! Please explain 23:117 further to me ... Thank you ...).

2- The brief answer to the question is as follows: polytheists cannot provide a proof of the existence of their gods/allies/saints/deities from the divine revelation descended by the Almighty Lord God.

3- Let us explore further, in the points below, the mention of Quranic term (proof) in the entire Quranic text.


Firstly: God's Proof:

1- The term (Proof) is one of the names of the Quran itself, and so is the term (Light): "O people! A Proof has come to you from your Lord, and We sent down to you a Clear Light." (4:174).

2- The term (proof) also indicates the unwritten divine revelation to guide messengers; e.g., when God inspired Moses about what to do in many situations and instances as per the Quranic story of Moses. Within the Quranic story of Joseph, Jacob was inspired by God about the scheme of his sons against Joseph: "So they went away with him, and agreed to put him at the bottom of the well. And We inspired him, "You will inform them of this deed of theirs when they are unaware."" (12:15). Joseph was given this type of guiding/preaching inspiration or proof to avoid sinning when the Potiphar's wife tried to seduce him: "She in whose house he was living tried to seduce him. She shut the doors, and said, "I am yours." He said, "God forbid! He is my Lord. He has given me a good home. Sinners never succeed." She desired him, and he desired her, had he not seen the proof of his Lord. It was thus that We diverted evil and indecency away from him. He was one of Our loyal servants." (12:23-24).

3- The term (proof) denotes the miracles of God granted to prophets to show them to their people; this is exemplified in the Quranic story of Moses: "Throw down your staff." And when he saw it wiggling, as if it were possessed, he turned his back to flee, and did not look back. "O Moses, come forward, and do not fear, you are perfectly safe. Put your hand inside your pocket, and it will come out white, without blemish. And press your arm to your side, against fear. These are two proofs from your Lord, to Pharaoh and his retinue members. They are truly sinful people."" (28:31-32).


Secondly: the disbelievers have no proof to support their claims:

1- The Only True Proof in the celestial religion of the Lord God comes from Him exclusively; this means that all those disbelievers/polytheists who follow earthly religions have no proof to support their claims; i.e., the lies, delusions, falsehoods, and myths that fill their earthly religions. In fact, their earthly religions are spread only through the negation of the reasoning mind, because the reasoning faculties within the human mind can be used easily to refute and debunk such religions. Hence, we find repeatedly in the Quran that God urges people to discern, ponder, reflect, and contemplate. When we ponder deeply on the Quranic verses, we infer that the followers of the earthly religions have no plausible or believable proofs to support their polytheistic claims at all.

2- Thus, the polytheists/disbelievers have no proofs regarding their faulty notions/tenets and their deities which include mortals and sites/items/mausoleums. There is no proof at all that would support the claim of seeking benediction and/or aid from dead corpses that have decomposed and turned to dust in their tombs or from a statue of a deified mortal, as we know from these verses: "So Exalted is God, the Sovereign, the True. There is no God except He, the Lord of the Noble Throne. Whoever invokes another deity besides Allah - he has no proof thereof - his judgment rests with his Lord. The disbelievers will not succeed." (23:116-117).


Thirdly: "...produce your proof..." (27:64):

1- God challenges the polytheists to provide proof regarding their claims of the existence of associates/partners/deities alongside with Him: "Or, who originates the creation and then repeats it, and who gives you livelihood from the sky and the earth? Is there another god with Allah? Say, "Produce your proof, if you are truthful."" (27:64).

2- We see here the Quranic logical response that appeals to reason and refutes the claims of the polytheists: "Or have they taken to themselves gods from the earth who resurrect? If there were in them gods other than God, they would have gone to ruin. So glory be to God, Lord of the Throne, beyond what they allege. He will not be questioned about what He does, but they will be questioned." (21:21-23). Again, God challenges the polytheists to provide proof regarding their claims of the existence of their invented gods: "Or have they taken, besides Him, other gods? Say, "Bring your proof..." (21:24). We find here the indication of the Only Divine Proof, which is the Quran, that confirms and endorses the previous Scriptures of the Lord God: "...This is a message for those with me, and a message of those before me." But most of them do not know the truth, so they turn away. We never sent a messenger before you without inspiring him that: "There is no God but I, so worship Me."" (21:24-25).

3- On the Last Day, God will rebuke the polytheists by demanding from them to bring proof regarding their assumed gods and purported deities: ''On the Day when He will call to them, and say, "Where are My associates whom you used to claim?" And We will draw out from every community a witness, and say, "Produce your proof." Then they will realize that the truth is God's, and those they used to invent have forsaken them." (28:74-75).

4- The term (proof) refers also to an evidence or a convincing argument; e.g., we see this within the debate between Abraham as a young man and his people and how God inspired him with this argument: "And his people argued with him. He said, "Do you argue with me about God, when He has guided me? I do not fear what you associate with Him, unless my Lord wills it. My Lord comprehends all things in knowledge. Will you not reconsider? And why should I fear those you associate with Him, and you do not fear associating others with God for which He sent down to you no authority? Which side is more entitled to security, if you are aware?" Those who believe, and do not obscure their faith with committing injustices - those will have security, and they are guided. That was Our argument which We gave to Abraham against his people. We elevate by degrees whomever We will. Your Lord is Wise and Informed." (6:80-83).

5- God challenges the polytheists to provide proof regarding their claims and notions of their earthly religions; e.g., that they will be the only ones entering into Paradise and others will not join them: "And they say, "None will enter Heaven unless he is a Jew or a Christian." These are their wishes. Say, "Produce your proof, if you are truthful."" (2:111). The same claim of confiscating or appropriating Paradise to themselves is repeated now by the Muhammadans who assume that the People of the Book are cursed and misguided. God refutes such polytheistic claims regarding Paradise here: "In fact, whoever submits himself to God, and is a doer of good, will have his reward with his Lord - they have nothing to fear, nor shall they grieve." (2:112).  

6- It is a very bad habit of the followers of the earthly religions that they justify their falling into the traps of polytheism and of twisting God's sharia legislations by claiming that this is part of the Divine Will of God – they tend to forget that God has created them as free agents with free will to choose to (dis)believe and to (dis)obey; we see this meaning in the following verses and how the argument means the proof ascribed only to God: "The polytheists will say, "Had God willed, we would not have practiced polytheism, nor would have our forefathers, nor would we have prohibited anything." Likewise those before them lied, until they tasted Our might. Say, "Do you have any knowledge that you can produce for us? You follow nothing but conjecture, and you only guess." Say, "To God belongs the conclusive argument. Had He willed, He would have guided you all."" (6:148-149). 



1- Thus, there is no real proof within religion except the Divine Proof of the Quran; God is the Truth and other deities/gods are misguiding falsehoods. God says the following in the Quran: "Such is God, your Lord - the True. What is there, beyond the Truth, except falsehood? How are you turned away?" (10:32); "That is because God is the Truth, and what they invoke besides Him is vanity, and because God is the Sublime, the Grand." (22:62).

2- The Quran is the Only Proof and we must never believe in any discourse/narrative in Islam except for the Quran itself: "With the Truth We sent it down, and with the Truth it descended. We sent you only as a bearer of good news and a warner." (17:105); "These are God's Verses which We recite to you in Truth. In which discourse, after God and His Verses, will they believe?" (45:6). The polytheists have invented hadiths/discourses/narratives/tales and ascribed them to Muhammad two centuries after his death; this Quranic verse, in the Quranic Chapter 47 significantly titled "Muhammad", refutes their polytheistic lies and falsehoods: "While those who believe, and work righteousness, and believe in what was sent down to Muhammad - and it is the Truth from their Lord - He remits their sins, and relieves their concerns." (47:2). We see here that we are not to believe in Muhammad but in what has been sent down to him, which is the Quran as the Only Divine Proof. In the very next verse, God differentiates between those polytheists who stick to falsehoods and those true believers who adhere to and believe in the Quranic Message as the Only Discourse within Islam: "That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehoods, while those who believe follow the Truth from their Lord. God thus cites for the people their examples." (47:3). As always, God says nothing but the Absolute Truth.

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